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Snapshot of virus evolution in hypersaline environments from the characterization of a membrane-containing Salisaeta icosahedral phage 1
Antti P. Aalto, David Bitto, Janne J. Ravantti, Dennis H. Bamford, Juha T. Huiskonen and Hanna M. Oksanen
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 109, No. 18 (May 1, 2012), pp. 7079-7084
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41596133
Page Count: 6
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The multitude of archaea and bacteria inhabiting extreme environments has only become evident during the last decades. As viruses apply a significant evolutionary force to their hosts, there is an inherent value in learning about viruses infecting these extremophiles. In this study, we have focused on one such unique virus-host pair isolated from a hypersaline environment: an icosahedral, membrane-containing double-stranded DNA virus—Salisaeta icosahedral phage 1 (SSIP-1) and its halophilic host bacterium Salisaeta sp. SP9-1 closely related to Salisaeta longa. The architectural principles, virion composition, and the proposed functions associated with some of the ORFs of the virus are surprisingly similar to those found in viruses belonging to the PRD1-adenovirus lineage. The virion structure, determined by electron cryomicroscopy, reveals that the bulk of the outer protein capsid is composed of upright standing pseudohexameric capsomers organized on a T = 49 icosahedral lattice. Our results give a comprehensive description of a halophilic virus-host system and shed light on the relatedness of viruses based on their virion architecture.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2012 National Academy of Sciences