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Geographic axes and the persistence of cultural diversity
David D. Laitin, Joachim Moortgat and Amanda Lea Robinson
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 109, No. 26 (June 26, 2012), pp. 10263-10268
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41602849
Page Count: 6
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Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel [Diamond J, (1997) Guns, Germs, and Steel (WW Norton, NY)] has provided a scientific foundation for answering basic questions, such as why Eurasians colonized the global South and not the other way around, and why there is so much variance in economic development across the globe. Diamond's explanatory variables are: (i) the susceptibility of local wild plants to be developed for self-sufficient agriculture; (ii) the domesticability of large wild animals for food, transport, and agricultural production; and (iii) the relative lengths of the axes of continents with implications for the spread of human populations and technologies. This third "continental axis" thesis is the most difficult of Diamond's several explanatory factors to test, given that the number of continents are too few for statistical analysis. This article provides a test of one observable implication of this thesis, namely that linguistic diversity should be more persistent to the degree that a geographic area is oriented more north-south than east-west. Using both modern states and artificial geographic entities as the units of analysis, the results provide significant confirmation of the relationship between geographic orientation and cultural homogenization. Beyond providing empirical support for one observable implication of the continental axis theory, these results have important implications for understanding the roots of cultural diversity, which is an important determinant of economic growth, public goods provision, local violence, and social trust.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2012 National Academy of Sciences