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NONNATIVE PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS INVASION INTO UTAH WETLANDS

Andrew Kulmatiski, Karen H. Beard, Laura A. Meyerson, Jacob R. Gibson and Karen E. Mock
Western North American Naturalist
Vol. 70, No. 4 (December 2010), pp. 541-552
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41718098
Page Count: 12
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
NONNATIVE PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS INVASION INTO UTAH WETLANDS
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Abstract

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (common reed), already one of the world's most widespread plant species, has realized rapid range expansion in coastal wetlands of North America in the past century, but little is known about P. australis range expansion in inland wetland systems. We used genetic analyses, aerial photographs, field surveys, and a greenhouse experiment to study the extent and mechanism of nonnative P. australis invasion of Utah wetlands. We collected and genetically analyzed 39 herbarium samples across the state and 225 present-day samples from northern Utah's major wetland complexes. All samples collected before 1993 and all samples collected outside the major wetlands of northern Utah, including some as recent as 2001, were identified as native (haplotypes A, B, D, and H). Only 10 (4%) of the present-day samples were native, each from small, discrete, low-density stands; the remaining samples were nonnative (haplotype M). Our earliest nonnative sample was collected near the Great Salt Lake in 1993. Around the Great Salt Lake, which contains 40% of Utah's wetlands, P. australis cover has increased from 20% to 56% over the past 27 years—an increase that appears attributable to the nonnative strain. In a 3-month-long greenhouse experiment, the nonnative haplotype grew taller, had more aboveground biomass, and had a greater above-to belowground biomass ratio than the native haplotypes regardless of nitrogen, phosphorus, or water availability. Nonnative P. australis is rapidly invading the wetlands of northern Utah. Areas in Utah where the native P. australis remains should be identified and protected. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex Steud (carrizo), una de las espécies de plantas más ampliamente distribuída en el mundo, se ha extendido rapidamente en los humedales costeros de Norteamérica en el último siglo, pero se conoce poco sobre la expansion de P. australis en sistemas de humedales dei interior. Utilizamos análisis genéticos, fotografias aéreas, estúdios de campo y un experimento en invernadero para examinar el alcance y el mecanismo de la invasion de la variedad no nativa de P. australis en los humedales de Utah. Recolectamos 39 muestras de herbario a lo largo dei estado y 225 muestras actuales de los mayores complejos de humedales en el norte de Utah, y las sometimos a un análisis genético. Todas las muestras recolectadas antes de 1993 y las que se recolectaron fuera de los mayores humedales dei norte de Utah, siendo las más recientes del 2001, fueron identificadas como nativas (haplotipos A, D y H). Solo 10 (4%) de las muestras actuales fueron nativas, todas de pequenos carrizales separados con baja densidad; las restantes fueron nonativas (haplotipo M). Nuestra muestra no nativa más antigua se recolectó cerca del Gran Lago Salado en 1993. Alrededor del Gran Lago Salado, el cual contiene el 40% de los humedales del estado de Utah, la cubierta de P. australis incremento del 20% al 56% durante los últimos 27 anos, un aumento que parece atribuirse a Ia variedad no nativa. En un experimento de invernadero de tres meses, el haplotipo no naivo creció más alto, tenía más biomasa sobre el nível de la tierra y una mayor proporción de biomasa sobre el nível de Ia tierra por biomasa subterrânea que los haplotipos nativos sin importar Ia disponibilidad de nitrógeno, fósforo o agua. El haplotipo no nativo de P australis está invadiendo rapidamente los humedales dei norte de Utah. Las áreas en Utah en donde las variedades nativas permanecen deben ser identificadas y protegidas durante el manejo de carrizos.

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