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Ökologische Hauptunterschiede zwischen Röhrichtgesellschaften fliessender und stehender Binnengewässer Mitteleuropas

Karel Kopecký
Folia Geobotanica & Phytotaxonomica
Vol. 1, No. 3 (1966), pp. 193-242
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4179432
Page Count: 54
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Ökologische Hauptunterschiede zwischen Röhrichtgesellschaften fliessender und stehender Binnengewässer Mitteleuropas
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Abstract

In vorliegender Arbeit sind die ökologischen Hauptunterschiede zwischen den Röhrichtgesellschaften fliessender und stehender Gewässer definiert. Demzufolge beweist der Verfasser die Trennung und selbständige Einreihung der Röhrichtgesellschaften fliessender Gewässer (die Verbände Phalaridion arundinaceae Kopecký 1961 und Glycerio-Sparganion Br.-Bl. et Siss. apud Boer 1942) und stehender Gewässer (Verband Phragmition communis W. Koch 1926) im phytozönologischen System. /// This paper analyses the main ecological differences between the habitats of reed communities on running and stagnant waters. Attention is mainly drawn to the mutual comparison of the habitats of river reed communities of the alliance Phalaridion arundinaceae Kopecký 1961 with reed communities on stagnant waters of the Phragmition communis W. Koch 1926 alliance. The main ecological differences between plant communities of reeds on running and stagnant waters are given in the following survey: 1. The river reeds ecotope-group of the Phalaridion arundinaceae Kopecký 1961 and Glycerio-Sparganion Br.-Bl. et Siss. apud Boer 1942, regardless of whether the stands colonize banks of water courses or basins, are characterized by the following main distinctive marks: a) by the development of reed communities in the ripal, or sometimes littoral bank zone; b) by the quantitative prevalence or balance of the ecological influence of the terrestrial ecophase compared with the total influence of the hydrophase, littoral and limosic ecophase during the ecostage; c) by sudden changes and sharp transitions of ecophases during the ecostage; d) by an ecologically decisive, periodical influence of the water current, or other type of water drift during the period of raised water levels; e) both components of the erosion-accumulation process take part in forming the edatop. The accumulation becomes wholly specific in its quantity and quality, which may be expressed as "piling-up". f) by the specific grain-size composition of soil substratum, usually with predominating minerogenic, stratified relatively coarse-grained stratum sediments; g) by a relatively good gas exchange between the soil and the atmosphere during the vegetation period and by a relatively high oxygen content in the flowing water. 2. The ecotope group of reed communities of stagnant water belonging to the Phragmition communis W. Koch 1926, regardless of whether the stands colonise the banks of water courses or basins isolated on banks, can be characterised by the following main marks: a) by an optimal development of reed stands in the sublittoral, or subripal zone of the bank area; b) by a quantitative prevalence of the hydrophase together with the littoral and limosic ecophases during the ecostage in comparison with the terrestrial ecophase (with exception of the terrestrial stages of phytocoenoses); c) by gradual transitions of ecophases. A relatively sudden change of ecophases arises more rarely (e.g. in cultivated fishponds); d) by missing the influence of a stronger water current or another kind of water drift; e) during the erosion-accumulation process the accumulation predominates and bears the character of a filling-in process; f) mostly the finest categories prevail in the grain-size composition of the soil. An increased humus content is typical; g) the gas exchange between the soil and the atmosphere during the vegetation period is remarkably limited (with the exception of the terrestrial stages of phytocoenoses). Accordingly reduction processes predominate here.

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