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Chorologie und Verbreitungsbiologie von Echinocystis lobata (Michx) Torr. et Gray mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihres Vorkommens in der Tschechoslowakei

Bohumil Slavík and Marie Lhotská
Folia Geobotanica & Phytotaxonomica
Vol. 2, No. 3 (1967), pp. 255-282
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4179460
Page Count: 31
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Chorologie und Verbreitungsbiologie von Echinocystis lobata (Michx) Torr. et Gray mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihres Vorkommens in der Tschechoslowakei
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Abstract

Die nordamerikanische Art Echinocystis lobata hat sich an den Ufern einiger europäischer Flüsse, insbesondere im pannonischen Gebiet, eingebürgert. Die Verbreitung in der Tschechoslowakei wird eingehend behandelt, insbesondere wo diese Art in einigen Flusssystemen Südmährens und der Süd- und Südostslowakei eingebürgert ist. Ihre geographische und ökologische Charakteristik in Nordamerika sowie in Europa wird klargelegt. Weiter wurde ihre phytozönologische Zugehörigkeit untersucht und die Aufmerksamkeit der Art und Weise der Verbreitung, vor allem der Hydrochorie, zugewandt. Echinocystis lobata ist eine wichtige Reservoirpflanze einer gefährlichen Viruskrankheit Cucumis virus 1 (Doolittle) Smith. /// 1. At the beginning of this century the North American species Echinocystis lobata, began to escape from cultures in Europe. It soon established in natural communities of river banks as an expansive hemerophytic neophyte. It expanded its area, which is markedly bound to the streams. Its main area lies in the Pannonian district. 2. Echinocystis lobata is, according to Stocking, a monotypic genus, closely allied to Echinopepon Naud. and Marah Kellog. Its intraspecific variability shows normal amplitude of variation. 3. The original spontaneous area of distribution in N. America and its ecology is thoroughly discussed. 4. The first record of escape from culture is from Rumania in 1904. Later on it was found in several countries (cf. Fig. 2). 5. Echinocystis lobata occupies two different habitats in Europe: a) river banks and brook sides-this habitat corresponds to its natural environment, b) ruderal places. While in the first habitat it is now practically naturalised in our country, in the second it does not grow for longer periods. 6. Its secondary area in Europe is analogous to its original area in N. America. It corresponds to regions with precipitation of 550 mm and over and an average temperature of 17-25 °C in June and below 0 °C in January. 7. Its present distribution in Czechoslovakia may be seen from the map; it corresponds roughly to the Pannonian district. The list of localities is attached. 8. It belongs to the nitrophilous "vail communities" of the alliance Senecion fluviatilis R. Tx. (1947) 1950, especially to the ass. Cuscuto-Calystegietum sepii R. Tx. 1947 em. Soó 1961 subass. echinocystidetosum (Soó 1960) Kárpáti 1962. 9. The carpobiological problems of this species are thoroughly discussed. Its distribution in Europe had 3 stages. In the first it was cultivated and the seeds were obtained by means of blastochory or hydrochory on the riversides in the second one. The third stage is characterised by its distribution along streams by means of blastochory, bythisohydrochory and nautohydrochory; its further distribution was due to high water in spring or autumn. Its distribution upstream is due partly to blastochory, partly to man's intentional or unintentional activity. Its ability to spread by hydrochory has been experimentally investigated (cf. Tab. 2). 10. Seeds undergo a primary dormancy (embryodormancy); they need at least 2 weeks of low temperature in wet environment. Germination is raised by scarification of the testa of stratified seeds; in the laboratory seeds germinated only in variable and not in constant temperature.

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