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Nomenklatorische Probleme in der Gattung Matricaria L.

Stephan Rauschert
Folia Geobotanica & Phytotaxonomica
Vol. 9, No. 3 (1974), pp. 249-260
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4179800
Page Count: 12
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Nomenklatorische Probleme in der Gattung Matricaria L.
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Abstract

Der Artname Matricaria chamomilla L. 1753 kann nicht auf die Echte Kamille angewendet werden, da er mit der Geruchlosen Kamille zu typisieren ist. Da M. chamomilla die Typusart der Gattung Matricaria L. ist, verbleibt dieser Gattungsname bei der Aufteilung der Gattung bei der Teilgattung mit der Geruchlosen Kamille; der Name Tripleurospermum Schultz-bip. ist illegitim. Der korrekte Name für die Gattung mit der Echten Kamille lautet Chamomilla S. F. Gray. Die Echte Kamille heisst Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert comb. nov., die Strahlenlose Kamille Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb. Die Inlandsippe der Geruchlosen Kamille muss, falls man sie im Artrang von der Strandsippe M. maritima L. abtrennt, M. perforata Mérat heissen, da der bekannte Name M. inodora L. 1755 als überflüssige Umbenennung von M. chamomilla L. 1753 illegitim ist. Die korrekten Namen der Chamomilla-Arten und ihre Synonymie werden in einer Liste aufgeführt. Diese Liste enthält auch für die Gattung Matricaria s. str. 20 Neukombinationen und 3 nomina nova. /// The nomenclatural type of the name Matricaria chamomilla L. 1753 is the Scentless Mayweed, not the Wild Camomile. The traditional application of this name in the latter meaning, which is found for the first time in Linnaeus' Flora suecica ed. 2 (1755), is not correct, because Linnaeus 1755 excluded the original type of the name M. chamomilla L. 1753, and therefore he is considered to have published a nomen novum for a new taxon, which must be cited correctly as "M. chamomilla L. 1755 non. L. 1753" and not as "M. chamomilla L. 1753 emend. L. 1755". This nomen novum, however, is a later homonym and cannot be used for the Wild Camomile. The older homonym M. chamomilla L. 1753 must be rejected for the Scentless Mayweed as a nomen ambiguum. If Matricaria L. is divided into two genera, the generic name Matricaria must be retained for the partial genus including the Scentless Mayweed, because the type-species of the genus Matricaria L., M. chamomilla L. 1753, is the Scentless Mayweed. The name Tripleurospermum Schultz-Bip., nowadays in general use for this genus, is illegitimate, because the name of its type-species is based on the same type "Fl. suec. 702" as the name of the type-species of Matricaria. The other partial genus, including the Wild Camomile, must be named Chamomilla S. F. Gray. The legitimacy of this generic name is discussed. The present author refers to the possibility of designating the species M. recutita (the Wild Camomile) a typus conservandus for the genus Matricaria; for in this event the names Matricaria s. str. and Tripleurospermum could be retained in the traditional meaning. After a detailed statement of the cases both for and against the conservation, however, the designation of a typus conservandus is not recommended. Therefore the correct names are Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert comb. nov. for the Wild Camomile, and Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb. for the Pineapple Weed (Rayless Mayweed). If the genus Chamomilla is united with Matricaria, the latter species must be named Matricaria discoidea DC. and not M. matricarioides (Lessing) Porter. The ruderal and segetal inland taxon of the Scentless Mayweed, if considered distinct in rank of species from the littoral taxon M. maritima L. 1753, must be named Matricaria perforata Mérat, since the known name M. inodora L. is illegitimate, being a nomen novum (avowed substitute) for M. chamomilla L. 1753. Correct names for the species of the genus Chamomilla with synonymy, and 20 new combinations and 3 nomina nova in the genus Matricaria s. str. are listed.

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