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Measures of Perceived Interactivity: An Exploration of the Role of Direction of Communication, User Control, and Time in Shaping Perceptions of Interactivity

Sally J. McMillan and Jang-Sun Hwang
Journal of Advertising
Vol. 31, No. 3, Advertising and the New Media (Autumn, 2002), pp. 29-42
Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4189224
Page Count: 14
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Measures of Perceived Interactivity: An Exploration of the Role of Direction of Communication, User Control, and Time in Shaping Perceptions of Interactivity
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Abstract

Interactivity is an often mentioned but seldom operationalized concept associated with the World Wide Web. Interactivity has been positioned conceptually as a process, a function, and a perception, but most operational definitions have focused on the process or function. This study develops scales to operationalize the perceptionbased approach to interactivity, because consumer perceptions are central to advertising research. Three overlapping constructs that are central to interactivity are explored: direction of communication, user control, and time. A multistage method is used to identify and refine measures of perceived interactivity (MPI). The 18 items included in the MPI offer researchers a tool for measuring a consumer perception central to advertising on the Web.

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