Access

You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:

login

Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

If You Use a Screen Reader

This content is available through Read Online (Free) program, which relies on page scans. Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.

Geographical Variation in the Song of the Great Tit (Parus major) in Relation to Ecological Factors

Malcolm L. Hunter and John R. Krebs
Journal of Animal Ecology
Vol. 48, No. 3 (Oct., 1979), pp. 759-785
DOI: 10.2307/4194
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4194
Page Count: 27
  • Read Online (Free)
  • Download ($18.00)
  • Subscribe ($19.50)
  • Cite this Item
Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Preview not available

Abstract

(1) We recorded the territorial songs of great tits at ten different geographically separated sites. Five of the sites were in dense deciduous or coniferous forest, and five in open woodland, parkland or hedgerows. (2) Forest birds from England, Poland, Sweden, Norway and Morocco had songs with a lower maximum frequency, narrower frequency range and fewer notes per phrase than woodland birds from England, Iran, Greece, Spain and Morocco. (3) We also measured acoustic attenuation for each habitat type; and for each study site we noted; body size of the birds, tree density, territory size, song of other species, song perch height, temperature and humidity. (4) We suggest that the differences in song between habitats, and striking similarities of songs from the same habitat type are at least in part related to differences in acoustic attenuation and territory size. Birds living in dense forests have to broadcast songs through more vegetation and over greater distances than do woodland birds. (5) We conclude that differences between habitats in climate, body size, perch height, and acoustic competition from other species are unimportant in accounting for the observed differences in song. (6) If it is accepted that forest songs are better suited for long distance transmission, we cannot explain why woodland birds use less well designed songs, although we offer some suggestions.

Page Thumbnails

  • Thumbnail: Page 
759
    759
  • Thumbnail: Page 
760
    760
  • Thumbnail: Page 
761
    761
  • Thumbnail: Page 
762
    762
  • Thumbnail: Page 
763
    763
  • Thumbnail: Page 
764
    764
  • Thumbnail: Page 
765
    765
  • Thumbnail: Page 
766
    766
  • Thumbnail: Page 
767
    767
  • Thumbnail: Page 
768
    768
  • Thumbnail: Page 
769
    769
  • Thumbnail: Page 
770
    770
  • Thumbnail: Page 
771
    771
  • Thumbnail: Page 
772
    772
  • Thumbnail: Page 
773
    773
  • Thumbnail: Page 
774
    774
  • Thumbnail: Page 
775
    775
  • Thumbnail: Page 
776
    776
  • Thumbnail: Page 
777
    777
  • Thumbnail: Page 
778
    778
  • Thumbnail: Page 
779
    779
  • Thumbnail: Page 
780
    780
  • Thumbnail: Page 
781
    781
  • Thumbnail: Page 
782
    782
  • Thumbnail: Page 
783
    783
  • Thumbnail: Page 
784
    784
  • Thumbnail: Page 
785
    785