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EL PROBLEMA DEL EMPLEO: ENFOQUES ORTODOXOS Y ESTRUCTURALES

Joseph R. Ramos
Cuadernos de Economía
Año 30, No. 90 (Agosto 1993), pp. 225-246
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41951241
Page Count: 22
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
EL PROBLEMA DEL EMPLEO: ENFOQUES ORTODOXOS Y ESTRUCTURALES
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Abstract

This paper contrasts two basic approaches to understanding the problems of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries. One (the orthodox or more conventional) approach sees the roots of the employment problem largely within the labor market, and focuses on increasing its efficiency by eliminating rigidities and imperfections in its operation. The other approach (structural) attributes the bulk of the problems of under and unemployment in developing countries to important failures in the markets complementary to the labor market -to wit, failures in the markets of human capital, physical capital, technology and goods, among others -the consequence of which is to reduce the demand for labor well below its potential. While the approaches are, in principle, complementary and not conflictive, in practise, the author argues, employment policies in LDCs tend to be one-sided, designed almost exclusively on the basis of the orthodox approach. Since the author contends that labor market rigidities explain but a fraction of LDC under and unemployment, the article develops in some detail the principal sources of "structural" under and unemployment, in order to exemplify the greater relevance and policy richness of this approach.

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