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Effects of Streptomycin, Cycloheximide, Fungizone, Captan, Carbofuran, Cygon, and PCNB on Soil Microorganisms
E. R. Ingham and D. C. Coleman
Vol. 10, No. 4 (Dec., 1984), pp. 345-358
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4250807
Page Count: 14
You can always find the topics here!Topics: Soil fungi, Fungi, Bacteria, Soil microorganisms, Soil bacteria, Soil fauna, Desert soils, Hyphae, Soil nutrients, Soil nematodes
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Eight biocides were chosen to determine whether they had any effects on nontarget organisms in soil and to what extent they would reduce their target populations under laboratory experimental conditions. A simplified microcosm system was utilized in which reduced species arrays that included field populations of either only bacteria and fungi, or bacteria, fungi, and protozoa (no nematodes, arthropods, or plants) were inoculated into sterilized soil. In a second set of experiments, plants were grown in sterilized soil. A bactericide-streptomycin-four fungicides-cycloheximide, Fungizone (amphotericin B), captan, and PCNB (quintozene)-an acaricide-cygon-an insecticide-nematicide-carbofuran-and an insecticide-diazinon-were used. Each biocide had effects on nontarget organisms although the increases or decreases, with respect to the control, were of only limited duration. Reductions in target groups were typically of longer duration. Streptomycin, applied at 1 mg· g-1 soil, did not decrease bacterial populations during the experimental incubation. At 3 mg· g-1 soil, streptomycin decreased the numbers of bacteria that grew on tryptone agar, but also reduced active hyphae. Fungizone was the most effective of the 4 fungicides tested in reducing active hyphae. Increased bacterial populations were usually observed following fungal reductions. Carbofuran had the fewest effects on the test organisms (bacteria, fungi, and protozoa). Only an initial stimulation of bacterial and fungal populations was observed with cygon although it also increased NH4 +-N concentrations in soil during most of the incubation, as did streptomycin and cycloheximide. A transitory increase in fungal populations following a decrease in ciliate numbers was observed in the cygon with grazers treatments. Diazinon reduced all microbial populations and inorganic nitrogen concentrations measured. Cygon and PCNB decreased growth of blue grama plants, while streptomycin reduced shoot weights of blue grama. These results should be useful in assessing the effects of these biocides when applied to more complex systems.
Microbial Ecology © 1984 Springer