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Yeast Colonizing the Intestine of Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri) and Turbot (Scophtalmus maximus)

T. Andlid, R.-V. Juárez and L. Gustafsson
Microbial Ecology
Vol. 30, No. 3 (Nov. - Dec., 1995), pp. 321-334
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4251459
Page Count: 14
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Yeast Colonizing the Intestine of Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri) and Turbot (Scophtalmus maximus)
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Abstract

Yeast were isolated from the intestine of farmed rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), turbot (Scophtalmus maximus), and free-living flat-fish (Pleuronectes platessa and P. flesus). The average number of viable yeasts recovered from farmed rainbow trout was 3.0 × 103 and 0.5 × 102 cells per gram homogenized intestine for white and red-pigmented yeasts, respectively. The dominant species were Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, and R. glutinis. In 5 of 10 free-lving marine fish, >100 viable yeast cells per gram intestinal mucus were recovered. Red-pigmented yeasts dominated and composed >90% of the isolates. Colonization experiments were performed by inoculating rainbow trout and turbot with fishspecific, isolated yeast strains and by examining the microbial intestinal colonization at intervals. Inoculation of experimental fish with pure cultures of R. glutinis and D. hansenii HF1 yielded colonization at a level several orders of magnitude higher than before the inoculation. Up to 3.8 × 104, 3.1 × 106, and 2.3 × 109 viable yeast cells per gram intestine or feces were recovered in three separate colonization experiments. The high level of colonizing yeasts persisted for several weeks. The concentrations of yeasts in the tank water never exceeded 103 viable cells per milliliter. No traces of fish sickness as a result of high yeast colonization were recorded during any of the colonization experiments. For periods of the experiments, the concentration of aerobic bacteria in the fish intestine was lower than the intestinal yeast concentration. Scanning electron microscopy studies demonstrated a close association of the yeasts with the intestinal mucosa. The mucosal colonization was further demonstrated by separating intestinal content, mucus, and tissue. All compartments were colonized by $>10^{3}$ viable yeast cells per gram. No bacteria were detected on the micrographs, indicating that their affinity for the intestinal mucosa was less than that of the yeasts.

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