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PASTÝŘSKÉ ŠTĚDROVEČERNÍ VYTRUBOVÁNÍ V ČECHÁCH A NA MORAVĚ
Vol. 91, No. 2 (2004), pp. 115-129
Published by: Institute of Ethnology, Czech Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42639610
Page Count: 15
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The pastoral blowing of Christmas Eve belongs to the most remarkable Christmas traditions in Bohemian lands. The pastoral tuba (tuba pastoritia) was made by the shepherds themselves from wood, later it was made in a craftsman manner from brass. The records of the time corroborate the outstanding musical skills of some shepherds. Their signals on the pasture followed up with military or fireman tunes. On Christmas Eve the shepherds and night watchmen made walk-abouts with singing and blowing. In the frontier regions the costume of rounding up the sheep to Bethlehem had been preserved. The shepherd cracked the whip and blew the tuba and before him were running boys with collars and bells. Still at the end of the twentieth century Josef Svejkovský recorded in the regions of Rokycany and Zbiroh remarkable pastoral tunes that were played on the pasture as well as on Christmas Eve. A unique chapter of the pastoral blowing represents its use in church during Christmas ceremonies. Pastorales composed by Bohemian and Moravian schoolmasters required the pastoral tuba and later the trumpet. Some parts indicate a virtuoso artistic production of the interpreters. The tuba pastoralis had been used in two ways, either during the whole composition or later only in the overture and in the intermezzos, rather as a curiosity. This popular instrument entered the festival Christmas intrades and also the instrumental pastorales. Unique „Symphonia pastoralis“ from Dřevohostice (1788) is a small concerto grosso with solo violin and tuba pastoralis. On midnight mess sometimes two shepherds blew, each of them in a different part of the church. The chordal motives that are characteristic for the pastoral tuba were often imitated in pastorales for other instruments, usually for violines and also pastoral organ preludes. Rare are pastorales for cemballo that in the eighteenth century probably served as a home Christmas music.
Český lid © 2004 Institute of Ethnology, Czech Academy of Sciences