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Biosynthesis of Starch in Proplastids of Germinating Ricinus communis Endosperm Tissue

Paul H. Reibach and C. R. Benedict
Plant Physiology
Vol. 70, No. 1 (Jul., 1982), pp. 252-256
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4267478
Page Count: 5
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Biosynthesis of Starch in Proplastids of Germinating Ricinus communis Endosperm Tissue
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Abstract

Electron photomicrographs of endosperm tissue from germinating seed of Ricinus communis L. cv. Hale show proplastids which contain prominent starch grains. The content of starch in endosperm tissue increased from 500 micrograms per seed, in imbibed seed, to 1,100 micrograms per seed in 5-day-old seedlings. The maximum net rate of starch deposition was 1.1 nanomoles glucose incorporated per minute per seed. About 200 micrograms of starch remained in the endosperm 9 days after imbibition. Starch content followed the same developmental pattern as the content of sucrose, free reducing sugars, and other metabolic processes found in this tissue. Two key enzymes of starch synthesis, adenosine diphosphoglucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase and ADPG-starch glucosyl transferase (starch synthetase) exhibited maximum activities at 4 and 5 days after germination, respectively. The maximum activity of ADPG pyrophosphorylase was 8.17 nanomoles ADPG formed per minute per seed, whereas starch synthetase exhibited an activity of 125 nanomoles glucose incorporated per minute per seed. These levels of enzyme activity are sufficient to account for the starch synthesis observed. Other enzymes which may be involved in starch synthesis include 3-phosphoglycerate kinase which showed an activity of 8.76 units per seed, triose-P isomerase (2.56 units per seed), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (0.99 units per seed), fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (0.23 units per seed), phosphoglucose isomerase (12.6 units per seed), and phosphoglucomutase (9.72 units per seed). The activities of these enzymes were similar to previously reported values. Starch synthetase was found in association with the fraction containing proplastids isolated from endosperm tissue. Of the total starch synthetase activity in the endosperm, 38% was particulate. Forty-four % of the total particulate activity of starch synthetase placed on sucrose gradients was associated with the band containing proplastids. The proplastids contained 98% of the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase carboxylase activity placed on the gradient.

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