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Tentativi di termoterapia di mandorli affetti da « mosaico » Nota preliminare

Giuseppe Majorana and Giovanni P. Martelli
Phytopathologia Mediterranea
Vol. 5, No. 2 (AGOSTO 1966), pp. 103-108
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42683740
Page Count: 6
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Tentativi di termoterapia di mandorli affetti da « mosaico » Nota preliminare
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Abstract

La gravita e la diffusione del « mosaico » del Mandorlo (Prunus amygdalus Batch.) nel Mezzogiorno d'Italia ci ha indotto a dare inizio ad una serie di osservazioni e ricerche nel tentativo di: 1) identificare piante sane in campo e 2) risanare parti di pianta e/o piante intere con acqua e aria calda. I risultati del primo biennio di ricerche indicano che l'agente delia malattia è spesso latente in moite delle cultivars più comunemente coltivate in Puglia. Ció, pur rendendo la selezione visiva, intesa quale mezzo di identificazio ne di piante madri sane, molto laboriosa e di non sicuro affidamento, non eselude tuttavia la possibile esistenza di piante indenni. La termoterapia con acqua calda non ha dato risultati apprezzabili, essendosi ottenuto un notevole danneggiamento degli organi trattati, ma non il loro completo risanamento. Incoraggianti, invece, sono apparsi i risultati della termoterapia con aria calda. Sembrerebbe infatti che con l'esposizione di piante intere a 38° ± 1°C per 3-4 settimane si riesca ad inattivare il virus localmente nelle gemme e che, in qualche fortunato caso, con esposizioni più lunghe sia forse possibile ottenere il completo risanamento dei soggetti trattati. The mosaic is one of the most widespread and, probably, the most serious virus disease of Almond trees (Prunus amygdalus Batch.) in Southern Italy where it is not uncommon to come upon orchards where up to 95% of the plants are manifestly affected. Such an unfortunate situation has suggested to undertake a series of investigations aiming to secure virus-free propagating material through: 1) identification of healthy plants in the field, and 2) heat-therapy of whole plants and/or bud-sticks by means of hot-air and hot-water treatment. The results of the first two years studies indicate that the causal agent of the disease is often latent in many of the Almond cultivars commonly grown in Apulia. In fact only. 2 out of 11 symptomless trees of 10 different cultivars did not induce symptoms when indexed on apparently healthy Almond seedlings. Hence visual selection, as a means of identification of healthy mother plants appears undependable and exceedingly laborious. Hot-water therapy produced considerable injuries to the treated organs without yielding recovery from virus. Results of hot-air treatment were encouraging for the virus was locally inactivated within the bud by exposing whole plants at 38 ± 1°C for 3-4 weeks. In addition, indication are that, in some instances, whole plants may be completely freed from virus by extending the exposure to hot-air up to 2-3 months. Further trials are now under way in the hope that the encouraging results obtained up to now will be confirmed by further experimental evidence. La gravité et la diffusion de la « mosaïque » de l'Amandier (Prunus amygdalus Batch.) dans le midi d'Italie nous a incité à commencer une série d'observations et de recherches visant à: 1) identifier des plantes saines en champ et 2) assainir des parties de plante et/ou des plantes entières avec de l'eau ou de l'air chaud. Les résultats de deux ans de recherches indiquent que l'agent de la maladie est fréquemment latent dans plusieurs des cultivars plus communément cultivées en Pouille. En effet des 11 arbres apparemment sains de 10 différentes cultivars deux seulement n'ont pas causé des symptômes, lorsqu'ils ont été greffés sur de petites plants de semis apparemment saines. La sélection visuelle pour l'identification de plantes mères saines semble donc très laborieuse et ne donne pas de garanties. La thermothérapie à l'eau chaude n'a pas donné de résultats appréciables, car elle a causé un dégât remarquable des organes traités, et non pas leur assainissement complet. Au contraire, les résultats de la thermothérapie à l'air chaud ont été encourageants. En effet il semblerait que, avec l'exposition de plantes entières à 38° ± 1°C pendant 3-4 semaines, on réussit à inactiver le virus localement dans les bourgeons et que, en quelque cas heureux, avec des expositions plus longues, il soit possible d'obtenir l'assainissement complet des sujets traités.

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