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Effect of fusicoccin on stomatal transpiration in plants

Antonio Graniti and Neil C. Turner
Phytopathologia Mediterranea
Vol. 9, No. 2/3 (DICEMBRE 1970), pp. 160-167
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42684022
Page Count: 8
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Effect of fusicoccin on stomatal transpiration in plants
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Abstract

Stomatal transpiration of Dogwood cuttings increased and leaf water potential decreased on absorption of a 10⁻⁵ M (about 7 ppm) solution of fusicoccin, a phytotoxin produced by Fusicoccum amygdali Del. The stomatal transpiration was also increased by fusicoccin in several other plant species. Stomata were induced to open widely by spraying or painting leaves with the same solution, both in the light and in the dark. The effect of light conditions under which plants were kept before and after treatment on stomatal opening was also investigated. The observed changes in transpiration are discussed on the basis of the known effects of fusicoccin on water absorption, plasticity of cell walls, oxydative metabolism of tissues, and permeability of cytomembranes. Stomatal opening in toxin-treated leaves probaly takes place as a consequence of the different effects of fusicoccin on the hydration of epidermal and guard cells. L'assorbimento di una soluzione 10⁻⁵ M (circa 7 ppm) di fusicoccina, una fitotossina prodotta da Fusicoccum amygdali Del., da parte di piante recise di Cornus florida L., ha causato Faumento della traspirazione stomatica e la riduzione del Potenziale idrico fogliare. La traspirazione stomatica è stata esaltata dalla fusicoccina anche in altre specie. Spruzzando o spennellando le foglie con la stessa soluzione, gli stomi si sono aperti maggiormente, sia alia luce che al buio. È stato anche studiato l'effetto che sull'apertura degli stomi avevano le condizioni d'illuminazioné in cui erano state tenute le piante prima e durante il trattamento. Si discute infine l'origine delle alterazioni della traspirazione sulla base dei noti effetti della fusicoccina sull'assorbimento di acqua, sulla plasticité délie pareti cellulari, sul metabolismo ossidativo e sulla perméabilité délie citomembrane. Nelle foglie esposte all'azione della tossina, l'apertura degli stomi deriverebbe dal diverso effetto della fusicoccina sull'idratazione délie cellule epidermiche e délie cellule di guardia degli stomi. L'absorption d'une solution 10⁻⁵ M (7 ppm environ) de fusicoccine, une phytotoxine produite par Fusicoccum amygdali Del., a provoqué une augmentation de la transpiration et une diminution du potentiel hydrique foliaire sur les boutures de Cornus florida L. De plus, la fusicoccine a fait augmenter la transpiration stomatique de plusieurs espèces. En aspergeant ou badigeonnant les feuilles avec la même solution, les stomates se sont ouverts davantage, soit à la lumière soit dans la obscurité. On a étudié aussi l'effet produit sur l'ouverture des stomates par les conditions d'illumination dans lesquelles on a gardé les plantes avant et après le traitement. On a attribué enfin l'origine des altérations de la transpiration aux effets connus de la fusicoccine sur l'absorption d'eau, sur la plasticité des parois cellulaires, sur le métabolisme oxydant et sur la perméabilité des cytomembranes. Dans les feuilles exposées à l'action de la toxine, l'ouverture des stomates serait une conséquence de la différence de potentiel osmotique entre les cellules épidermiques et les cellules stomatiques.

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