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De opkomst van het Majolica≈Bedrijf in de Noordelijke Nederlanden

NANNE OTTEMA
Oud Holland
Vol. 42 (1925), pp. 237-262
Published by: Brill
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42718946
Page Count: 27
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Abstract

The author establishes proof, that Dr. Pitt's opinion, that the art of baking „Majolica, this is a species of earthenware covered with a layer of (not-transparent) white tin-glaze, was imported directly from Spain and Italy to the Northern Netherlands by the Haarlem painter Hendrik Corneliszn. Vroom, must be refuted. That this hypothesis, which was founded on what Karel van Mander states with reference to it in his artist's-book, is no longer tenable, is evident from the fact that Vroom's journey to Sevilla, Florence, Venice and other Italian places can not have taken place before about the year 1585, while it can be proved, that probably in Amsterdam majolica-works were already established some time before 1557, and in Haarlem and Middelburg certainly already in the years between 1560 and 1570. The majolica-works at Delft, Rotterdam, Utrecht, Harlingen ando ther Frisian places probably are of later date. Next to the influence, that went out from the Antwerp School of the Andriessens, the followers of Guido di Sa vino, it may be remarked, that the influence of the Antwerp majolica-works of Jan Bogaert were of special influence to Haarlem and Amsterdam. In Amsterdam we find the majolica-worker Carstiaen van den Abeele, who having worked, after his apprenticeship in the Antwerp studio of Van Bogaert from the year 1560, established himself definitely at Amsterdam before the year 1584. On examination of the product itself, next to these and other archivalic proofs, it is evident, that besides Antwerp an other influence can be traced, proceeding from more direct Spanish and Italian sources, on the decoration of North Netherland majolica. This ornamental influence is corroberated by Vroom and other italianising North Netherland artists, but was not solely introduced from Faenza, but also from other Italian majolica-centra, such as Venice, Florence etc. In conclusion the author examines the caracteristic differences, by means of which we can distinguish the majolica, made in different West-European centra. He especially draws the attention to the decoration by the ancient Majolica-workers called „beeldekens en historiekens" (little figures and short tales) derived from model-books by Cornells Floris and other Antwerp decorative artists of about the middle of the 16th century. These decorations are to be found on Antwerp majolica, or on majolica influenced directly by Antwerp. An other distinction is found in the different colouring in which at Antwerp mostly yellow prevails, which in England is more pale and in Holland more vigorous, and strongly pronounced and brilliant by the „kwaart", that is the lead-glaze, with which the tin* glaze is overlaid. The last word however on this subject has not yet been spoken. The manner in which the technical improvement in the glass-industry — the manu-facturing of the fine glass "Cristal de Venise"— was introduced in the northern Netherlands, as is shown in Dr. F. W. Hudig's dissertation, is altogether identical with the way in which the Majolicaeart was introduced in that country. Both are concequence of the same political and economical causes, even as also the disappearance of both congenial industries has one and the same cause, namely the competition of the technically improved English glass and earthenware.

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