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The Fractal Process of European Integration: A Formal Theory of Recursivity in the Field of European Security

Grégoire Mallard and Martial Foucault
French Politics, Culture & Society
Vol. 29, No. 2, SPECIAL ISSUE: EUROPEAN UNION: ARE THE FOUNDING IDEAS OBSOLETE? (Summer 2011), pp. 68-89
Published by: Berghahn Books
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42843711
Page Count: 22
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The Fractal Process of European Integration: A Formal Theory of Recursivity in the Field of European Security
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Abstract

This article proposes a simple formal model that can explain why and how European states engaged in the negotiation of federalist treaties in the fields of European defense and security. Using the non-cooperative model of multilateral bargaining derived from the Stahl-Rubinstein game, we show that the specific sequencing of treaty negotiations adopted by federalists explains why, against all odds, states preferred federalist-inspired treaties to intergovernmental treaties. We argue that federalists succeeded in convincing states to sign their treaties, rather than alternative treaties, by spreading the risk of rejection attached to various components of European security treaties intosuccessive periods of negotiations, a process that they repeated in each new round of negotiation. In doing so, we show that Jean Monnet and his transnational network of European federalists had an influence on the process of EU integration because they segmented treaties into components with different probabilities of acceptance, and structured the different rounds of negotiations of these components by starting with the less risky ones, rather than because they convinced states to change their preferences and adopt federalist treaties instead of intergovernmental treaties.

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