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Occurrence of carpophores of ectomycorrhizal fungi in selected stands of Pinus sylvestris in the Netherlands in relation to stand vitality and air pollution

A. J. TERMORSHUIZEN and A. P. SCHAFFERS
Plant and Soil
Vol. 104, No. 2 (1987), pp. 209-217
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42936873
Page Count: 9
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Occurrence of carpophores of ectomycorrhizal fungi in selected stands of Pinus sylvestris in the Netherlands in relation to stand vitality and air pollution
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Abstract

The relation between the occurrence of carpophores of mycorrhizal fungi, tree vitality, and air pollution in 'young' (5-10 years) and 'old' (50-80 years) stands of Pinus sylvestris L. was investigated. In the Netherlands 21 homogeneous plots of 1000 m² were selected on dry, sandy soils. Tree vitality was assessed in the summer of 1985 and during the autumn the plots were searched for carpophores of mycorrhizal fungi. In the young plots 3 times more species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and 20 times more carpophores per plot were found than in the old plots. In the old plots, the number of carpophores and the number of species showed significant positive correlations with the average number of needleyears of the trees. The number of carpophores and the number of species were significantly negative correlated with the concentrations of SO₂ and O₃ in the air and the amount of NH₃ emission. The number of needleyears, the crown density and the overall tree vitality were found to be significantly negative correlated with the amount of NH₃ emission, and the number of needleyears also with the concentration of O₃ in the air. Such correlations were not found for the young plots. No differences were found in soil chemical properties between the plots. Evidence was obtained that the fructification of mycorrhizal fungi of old stands of Pinus sylvestris is influenced by air pollution either directly, or indirectly by way of tree vitality. It is hypothesized that the young plots offer more advantageous circumstances for fructification of the fungi because of the disturbance of the upper soil-layer at the time of planting.

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