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Nitrogen-15 balances for urea and neem coated urea applied to lowland rice following two cowpea cropping systems
P.S. JOHN, R.J. BURESH, R.K. PANDEY, R. PRASAD and T.T. CHUA
Plant and Soil
Vol. 120, No. 2 (December 1989), pp. 233-241
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42938324
Page Count: 9
You can always find the topics here!Topics: Rice, Green manures, Grains, Plants, Agricultural soils, Nitrates, Nitrogen, Lowlands, Agrology, Coatings
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Little is known about whether the high N losses from inorganic N fertilizers applied to lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) are affected by the combined use of either legume green manure or residue with N fertilizers. Field experiments were conducted in 1986 and 1987 on an Andaqueptic Haplaquoll in the Philippines to determine the effect of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cropping systems before rice on the fate and use efficiency of ¹⁵N-labeled urea and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss.) coated urea (NCU) applied to the subsequent transplanted lowland rice crop. The pre-rice cropping systems were fallow, cowpea incorporated at the flowering stage as a green manure, and cowpea grown to maturity with subsequent incorporation of residue remaining after grain and pod removal. The incorporated green manure contained 70 and 67 kg N ha⁻¹ in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The incorporated residue contained 54 and 49 kg N ha⁻¹ in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The unrecovered ¹⁵N in the ¹⁵N balances for 58 kg N ha⁻¹ applied as urea or NCU ranged from 23 to 34% but was not affected by pre-rice cropping system. The partial pressure of ammonia, pNH₃, and floodwater (nitrate + nitrite)-N following application of 29 kg N ha⁻¹ as urea or NCU to 0.05-m-deep floodwater at 14 days after transplanting was not affected by pre-rice cropping system. In plots not fertilized with urea or NCU, green manure contributed an extra 12 and 26 kg N ha⁻¹ to mature rice plants in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The corresponding contributions from residue were 19 and 23 kg N ha⁻¹, respectively. Coating urea with 0.2 g neem cake per g urea had no effect on loss of urea-N in either year; however, it significantly increased grain yield (0.4 Mg ha⁻¹) and total plant N (11 kg ha⁻¹) in 1987 but not in 1986.
Plant and Soil © 1989 Springer