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ROZWÓJ ROZUMIENIA NIEKTÓRYCH RELACJI OPARTYCH NA ANALOGII U NIEWIDOMYCH DZIECI W WIEKU SZKOLNYM

BOGDAN PIETRULEWICZ
Roczniki Filozoficzne / Annales de Philosophie / Annals of Philosophy
Vol. 28, No. 4, PSYCHOLOGIE / PSYCHOLOGY / PSYCHOLOGIA (1980), pp. 79-106
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/43409592
Page Count: 28
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
ROZWÓJ ROZUMIENIA NIEKTÓRYCH RELACJI OPARTYCH NA ANALOGII U NIEWIDOMYCH DZIECI W WIEKU SZKOLNYM
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Abstract

The article deals with problems of reasoning by analogy, which plays an important compensating role in blind people. So far psychology has investigated the process of solving analogy-based relations in persons without sensory impairment, but no cases of various kinds of sensory deficiencies. Yet, wherever direct understanding of facts or phenomena fails it is substituted by assimiliation based on analogy. In the case of the blind, the similarity of relationships often decides about the entire content of a concept, whose designation is apprehended as a linguistic form and is not given in direct sense experience. The classical proportion scheme of Aristotle was used as the paradigm of experimental investigation. The elements of the proportion A:B= C:X involving identical relations, whether semantic, numerical or figural, constituted the test material. The subject population numbered 120 persons: 60 blind children and 60 sighted children. In each group, there were 19 third-form pupils, 21 fifth-form pupils and 20 seventh-form pupils. The investigation of reasoning by analogy showed that the least difficult was the partanole relation; next was the relation of opposition, and the most difficult was the causeeffect relation. The reasoning curves for the three relations have similar shapes pes in blind and sighted subjects of the same age. Yet, certain specific tendencies were observed. In the area of numerical reasoning, the greatest developmental dynamism occurs in the period between the third and the fifth forms. Increasing functions are easier than decreasing functions based on the same principles. Mean indices of analogy solving in the area of geometrical figures yielded a triple curve, the best results being those for the visual perception of the control group, somewhat poorer scores being obtained for the tactual perception of the blind and the poorest results being those for the tactual perception of the sighted. The skill of solving easy systems of figure analogies develops between the fifth and the seventh forms. In general it can be assumed that the apprehension of analogy in the blind results in an adequate compensation of sensory deficiency

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