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Die Gāwdārān: Sozio-ökonomischer Wandel bei Rinderhaltern in Sistan (Iran) im 20. Jh.

Georg Stöber
Sociologus
Neue Folge / New Series, Vol. 34, No. 1 (1984), pp. 47-73
Published by: Duncker & Humblot GmbH
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/43645185
Page Count: 27
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Die Gāwdārān: Sozio-ökonomischer Wandel bei Rinderhaltern in Sistan (Iran) im 20. Jh.
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Abstract

The inundated area of the inland delta of the Sistän-depression may be regarded as a periphery on a national as well as regional scale. Besides of fowlers and fishermen cattle breeders exploit its resources. The cattle which is pastured in the reed beds of the neyzār produces meat, milk, and — in former times — plough oxen. To a large extent, the milk products are consumed by the herders themselves, the plough oxen were hired out to farmers, and the beef cattle is exported to a large degree. Because of agrotechnological changes, i.e. the employment of tractors, the plough oxen aren't rentable any more and the income of the cattle holders decreased. Especially sedentary cattle breeders are able to substitute this loss by home industry or wage labour, or — in some cases — by agriculture of their own. In former times, agriculture was sometimes undertaken by mobile herdsmen. It became a supplementary, after losses of cattle as a result of droughts even primary source of income for sedentarized pastoralists who profited from the land reform of Rezä Shäh or later development measures. But even cattle breeders without any agricultural lands become sedentary and shift from a mobile to a fixed form of breeding. So they are able to make a more frequent use of the infrastructure (schools etc.) of the region which is lacking in the neyzär, and it is easier for them to exploit supplementary sources of income.

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