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Variations in the Prevalence of Antibody to Brucella Infection in Cattle by Farm, Area and District in Kenya
M. Kadohira, J. J. McDermott, M. M. Shoukri and M. N. Kyule
Epidemiology and Infection
Vol. 118, No. 1 (Feb., 1997), pp. 35-41
Published by: Cambridge University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4617326
Page Count: 7
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Variations in the sero-prevalence of antibody to brucella infection by cow, farm and area factors were investigated for three contrasting districts in Kenya: Samburu, an arid and pastoral area; Kiambu, a tropical highland area; and Kilifi, a typical tropical coastal area. Cattle were selected by a two-stage cluster sampling procedure and visited once between August 1991 and 1992. Schall's algorithm, a statistical model suitable for multi-level analysis was used. Using this model, older age, free grazing and large herd size (≥ 31) were associated with higher sero-prevalence. Also, significant farm-to-farm, area-to-area and district-to-district variations were estimated. The patterns of high risk districts and areas seen were consistent with known animal husbandry and movement risk factors, but the larger than expected farm-to-farm variation within high risk areas and districts could not be explained. Thus, a multi-level method provided additional information beyond conventional analyses of sero-prevalence data.
Epidemiology and Infection © 1997 Cambridge University Press