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The Measure of Recovery upon Implied and Quasi-Contracts

Joseph H. Beale
The Yale Law Journal
Vol. 19, No. 8 (Jun., 1910), pp. 609-621
DOI: 10.2307/784538
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/784538
Page Count: 13
Subjects: Law
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Notes and References

This item contains 56 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Clayton v. Blake, 4 Ired. (N. C.), 497.
  • 2
    This reference contains 35 citations:
    • The Lucille Manor, 70 Fed. 233
    • Springfield Milling Co. v. Barnard & Leas Manuf. Co., 8i Fed. Rep., 26i, 26 C. C. A., 389
    • Barkalow v. Pfeiffer, 38 Ind., 2I4
    • Aetna Iron & Steel Works v. Kossuth County, 79 Ia., 40, 44 N. W. 2I5
    • Bassett v. Sanborn, 9 Cush. (Mass.), 58
    • Gleason v. Snmith, 9 Cush., 484, 57 Am. Dec. 62
    • Kenworthy v. Stevens, I32 Mass., I23
    • Norwood v. Lathrop, I78 Mass., 208, 59 N. E. Rep., 650
    • Leeds v. Little, 42 Minn., 4I4, 44 N. W., 309
    • Yeats v. Ballentine, 56 Mo., 530
    • Decker v. School Dist., 74 S. W. 390
    • Bozarth v. Dudley, 44 N. J. L., 304, 43 Am. Rep. 373
    • Feeney v. Bardsley, 66 N. J. L., 239, 49 Atl. Rep., 443
    • Phillip v. Gallant, 62 N. Y., 256
    • Woodward v. Fuller, 8o N. Y., 3I2
    • Nolan v. Whitney, 88 N. Y., 648
    • Smith v. Gugerty, 4 Barb., 6I4
    • Sin- clair v. Tallmage, 35 Barb., 602
    • Goldsmith v. Hand, 26 Ohio St., ioi
    • Johnson v. Slaymaker, i8 Ohio Ct. Ct., io4
    • Chambers v. Jaynes, 4 Pa., 39
    • Danville Bridge Co. v. Pomroy, I5 Pa., I5I
    • Truesdale v. Watts, I2 Pa., 73
    • Wade v. Haycock, 25 Pa., 382
    • Moore v. Carter, I46 Pa. 492, 23 AtI. Rep., 243
    • White v. Braddock Borough School Dist., I59 Pa., 20i, 28 AtI. Rep., I36
    • Shires v. O'Connor, 4 Pa. Super. Ct. 465
    • Aldrich v. Wil- marth, 3 S. D.,, 523, 54 N. W. Rep., 8ii
    • Bishop v. Price, 24 Wis., 480.
    • Fitts v. Reinhart, I02 Iowa, 3II, 7i N. W. Rep. 227
    • Leeds v. Little, 42 Minn., 414, 44 N. W. Rep. 309
    • Filbert v. Phila., i8i Pa., 530, 37 Atl. 545.
    • Gillis v. Cobe, I77 Mass., 584, 59 N. E. Rep. 455.
    • Linch v. Paris Lumber & Grain Elevator Co., 8o Tex., 23
    • I5 S. W. Rep. 208.
  • 3
    This reference contains 11 citations:
    • Cutler v. Close, 5 C. & P., 337
    • Pinches v. Swedish Lutheran Church, 55 Conn., i83, io AtI. 264
    • Keeler v. Herr, I57 Ill., 57, 4i N. E., 750
    • Walker v. Orange, i6 Gray, I93
    • Sheldon v. Leahy, iii Mich., 29, 69 N. W. Rep. 76
    • Leeds v. Little, 42 Minn., 414, 44 N. W., 309
    • Haysler v. Owen, 6i Mo., 270
    • Crouch v. Gutmann, I34 N. Y., 45, 3i N. E. Rep., 271
    • Pallman v. Smith, I35 Pa., i88
    • Shires v. O'Connor, 4 Pa. Super. Ct. 465
    • Ashland, L. S. & C. Co. v. Shores, I05 Wis., I22, 8i N. W. I36.
  • 4
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Cullen v. Sears, II2 Mass., 299
    • Eaton v. Gladwell, T21 Mich., 444, 449, 8o N. W. Rep., 2II
    • Morton v. Harrison, 52 N. Y. Super. Ct. 305
    • Ashland, L. S. & C. Co. v. Shores, I05 Wis., I22, 8i N. W., I36.
  • 5
    This reference contains 16 citations:
    • Woodruff v. Hough, 9i U. S., 596
    • Pinches v. Swedish Lutheran Church, 55 Conn., i83, i0 Atd. 264
    • Morford v. Ambrose, 3 J. J. Marsh., 688
    • Norris v. School Dist., I2 Me., 293, 28 Am. Dec., i82
    • Veasie v. Bangor, 5I Me., 509
    • Smith v. First Cong. Meeting House, 8 Pick., I78
    • Lord v. Wheeler, i Gray, 282
    • Atkins v. Barnstable, 97 Mass., 428
    • Pow- ell v. Howard, io9 Mass. I92
    • Allen v. McKibbin, 5 Mich., 449
    • Wildey v. School Dist., 25 Mich., 4I9
    • Phelps v. Beebe, 7I Mich., 554, 39 N. W., 76i
    • Williams v. Porter, 5I Mo., 44I
    • Freeman v. Aylor, 62 Mo. App., 6I3
    • Decker v. School Dist., 74 S. W., 380
    • Newman v. McGregor, 5 Ohio, 349, 24 Am. Dec., 293.
  • 6
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • Bertrand v. Byrd, 5 Ark., 65I
    • Walsh v. Jenvey, 85 Md., 240
    • 36 AtU., 8I7
    • Bassett v. Sanborn, 9 Cush. 58
    • Cardwell v. Bridge, 9 Allen, 355
    • Norwood v. Lathrop, I78 Mass., 208, 59 N. E. Rep., 650.
  • 7
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Pinches v. Swedish Lutheran Church, 55 Conn., i83, io AtU., 264
    • Morford v. Ambrose, 3 J. J. Marsh, 688
    • Walsh v. Jenvey, 85 Md., 240, 36 Atl. Rep. 8I7
    • Atkins v. Barnstable, 97 Mass., i92.
  • 8
    Aetna L. & I. Works v. Kossuth County, 79 Ia., 40, 44 N. W., 2I5.
  • 9
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • Escott v. White, io Bush (Ky.) i69
    • Allen v. McKibbin, 5 Mich., 449
    • Wildey v. School Dist., 25 Mich., 419
    • Phelps v. Beebe, 7I Mich., 554, 39 N. W. Rep., 76i
    • Freeman v. Aylor, 62 Mo. App., 6I3
    • Decker v. School Dist., 74 S. W. Rep., 390.
  • 10
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Gillis v. Cobe, I77 Mass., 584, 59 N. E. Rep., 455
    • Yeats v. Ballen- tine, 56 Mo., 530.
  • 11
    This reference contains 10 citations:
    • Munro v. Butt, 8 El. and BI., 738
    • English v. Wilson, 34 Ala., 20I
    • Bertrand v. Byrd, 5 Ark., 65i
    • Zottman v. San Francisco, 20 Cal., 96
    • J. M. Griffith Co. v. Los Angeles, 54 Pac., 383
    • Morford v. Mastin, 6 T. B. Mon., 609, I7 Am. Dec., i88
    • Yeats v. Ballentine, 56 Mo., 530
    • Bozarth v. Dud- ley, 44 N. J. L., 304, 43 Am. Rep., 373
    • Eldridge v. Rowe, 7 Ill., 9i
    • Lowe v. Sinklear, 27 Mo., 308.
  • 12
    This reference contains 8 citations:
    • Merriweather v. Taylor, I5 Ala., 735
    • Hawkins v. Gilbert, i9 Ala., 54
    • Bell v. Teague, 85 Ala., 2II, 3 So. Rep., 86i
    • Simpson v. McDonald, 2 Ark., 370
    • McClure v. Secrist, 5 Ind., 3I
    • Williams v. Porter, 5I Mo., 44I
    • B. & 0. R. Co. v. Lafferty, 2 W. Va., i04
    • Taylor v. Williams, 6 Wis., 363.
  • 13
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Walsh v. Jenvey, 85 Md. 240, 36 Atl. Rep., 8I7
    • Farmer v. Francis, 12 Ired. (N. C.), 282
    • Eaton v. Gladwell, I2I Mich., 44, 8o N. W. 292.
  • 14
    This reference contains 14 citations:
    • Dermott v. Jones, 23 How., 220, L. ed.
    • Sheppard v. Dowling, I03 Ala., 563, I5 So. Rep., 846
    • Bush v. Finucane, 8 Colo., 192, 6 Pac. Rep., 5I4
    • Adlard v. Muldoon, 45 Ill., I93
    • Estep v. Fenton, 66 Ill., 467
    • Epper- ly v. Bailey, 3 Ind., '72
    • Barkalow v. Pfeiffer, 38 Ind., 2I4
    • Jewett v. Weston, iI Me., 346
    • Bee Printing Co. v. Hichborn, 4 All., 63
    • Phelps v. Beebe, 7I Mich., 554
    • Keith v. Ridge, i46 Mo., go, 47 S. W., 904
    • Horn v. Batchelder, 4! N. H., 86
    • Pullman v. Corning, g N. Y., 93
    • Barker v. Troy & Rutland R. R. Co., 27 Vt., 766.
  • 15
    Garland v. New Orleans, I3 La. Ann., 43.
  • 16
    This reference contains 23 citations:
    • 2 Sedg. Dam. 8th Ed., Sect. 659.
    • Hansbrough v. Beck, 5 Wall., 497, i8 L. ed., 520
    • Hawkins v. Gilbert, i9 Ala., 54
    • Golden Gate Lumber Co. v. Sahrbacher, i05 Cal., II4, 38 Pac., 635
    • Demead v. Coburn, I5 Md. 29
    • Homer v. Shaw, I77 Mass., I, 58 N. E. Rep., i6o
    • Jennings v. Camp, I3 Johns. 94, 7 Am. Dec., 367
    • Brown v. Weber, 38 N. Y., i87
    • Glacius v. Black, 5o N. Y., I45, io Am. Rep., 449
    • Crane v. Knubel, 6i N. Y., 645
    • Cunningham v. Jones, 4 Abb. Pr., 433.
    • Ellis v. Hamlen, 3 Taunt., 52
    • Whitaker v. Dunn, 3 T. L. Rep., 602
    • Elliott v. Caldwell, 43 Minn., 357, 45 N. W. Rep., 845, 9 L. R. A., 52
    • Bozarth v. Dudley, 44 N. J. L., 304, 43 Am. Rep., 373
    • Feeney v. Bardsley, 66 N. J. L., 239, 49 Atl. Rep., 443
    • Smith v. Brady, 17 N. Y., 173, 72 Am. Dec., 442
    • Glacius v. Black, 50 N. Y., 145, io Am. Rep., 449
    • Mehurin v. Stone, 37 Ohio St., 49
    • Shires v. O'Connor, 4 Pa. Super. Ct., 465
    • Hulst v. Benevolent Hall Assoc., 9 S. D., i44, 68 N. W. Rep., 20o
    • Sherlock v. Powell, 25 Ont. App., 407.
    • Grifin v. Miner, 54 N. Y. Super. Ct., 46.
  • 17
    6 N. H., 481.
  • 18
    This reference contains 23 citations:
    • 2 Sedg. Dam., 8th ed., Sect. 66o.
    • Heman v. Compton Hill Imp. Co., 58 Mo. App., 480
    • Muller v. Gillick, 66 Mo. App., 500
    • Danforth v. Freeman, 69 N. H., 466, 43 Atl., 621
    • Cox v. Estell, Peck (Tenn.), 175
    • Twitty v. McGuire, 3 Murph. (Tenn.), 50I
    • Elliott v. Wilkinson, 8 Yerg. (Tenn.), 411
    • Porter v. Woods, 3 Humph. (Tenn.) 56, 39 Am. Dec. I53
    • Gibson. v. Carlin, 13 Lea (Tenn.), 44o
    • Deberry v. Young, i Tenn. Cas., 51
    • Bush v. Jones, 2 Tenn. Cas., 224
    • Gonzales College v. McHigh, 2I Tex., 256.
    • Walworth v. Finnegan, 33 Ark., 751
    • Jewett v. Weston, iI Me., 346
    • Norris v. School Dist., 12 Me., 293, 28 Am. Dec., 182
    • Porter v. Woods, 3 Humph., 56, 39 Am. Dec., 153
    • Hillyard v. Crabtree, ii Tex., 264, 62 Am. Dec., 475
    • Gon- Zales College v. McHugh, 2I Tex., 256
    • Carroll v. Welch, 26 Tex., I47
    • Watson v. DeWitt County, I9 Tex. Civ. App., I50, 46 S. W., I06I
    • B. & 0. R. R. Co. v. Lafferty, 2 W. Va., I04.
    • Austin v. Austin, 47 Vt., 31I
    • Escott v. White, io Bush. (Ky.), i69.
  • 19
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Wilson v. Baumnan, 80 Ill., 493
    • North v. Mallory, 94 Ind., 305, 51 AtU., 89
    • Thompson v. Gaffey, 52 Neb., 317, 72 N. W., 314
    • Derby v. John- Son, 21 Vt., 17.
  • 20
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Meyer v. Hallock, 2 Robert (N. Y.), 284
    • Shaw v. Turnpike, 3 P. & W. (Pa.), 445.
  • 21
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Cox v. McLaughlin, 54 Cal., 605
    • Christian County v. Oveholt, i8 Ill., 223
    • Beatty v. Howe Lumber Co., 77 Minn., 272, 79 N. W. Rep., 1013
    • Wharton v. Winch, I40 N. Y., 287, 35 N. E. Rep., 589
    • Jones v. N. Y., 57 App. Div., 403, 68 N. Y. Supp., 228.
  • 22
    This reference contains 14 citations:
    • Britt v. Hays, 2i Ga., I57
    • Selby v. Hutchinson, 9 Ill., 3I9
    • Webster v. Enfleld, IO Ill., 298
    • Dobbins v. Higgills, 78 Ill., 440
    • Wilson v. Bauman, 80 Ill., 493
    • Marquis v. Lauretson, 76 Ia., 23
    • Thompson v. Brown, io6 Iowa, 367, 67 N. W. Rep., 8i9
    • Black v. Woodrow, 39 Md., i94
    • Bush v. Brooks, 70 Mich., 446, 38 N. W. Rep., 562
    • Simmons v. Ocean Causeway, 2i App. Div., 30, 47 N. Y. Supp., 360
    • Hardiman v. Mayor, 2i App. Div., 6I4, 47 N. Y. Supp., 786
    • Green v. Haley, R. I., 260
    • Preble v. Bottom, 27 Vt., 249
    • Fitch v. Casey, 2 G. Greene (Ia.), 300.
  • 23
    Bennett v. Phelps, 12 Minn., 326.
  • 24
    This reference contains 9 citations:
    • Fitch v. Casey, 2 G. Greene (Ia.), 300
    • Rodemer v. Hazelhurst, 9 Gill, 288
    • North v. Mallory, 94 Md., 305. 5i Atl., 89
    • Connolly v. Sullivan, 53 N. E. I43
    • Hemminger v. Western Assur. Co., 95 Mich., 355. 54 N. W. Rep. 949
    • Thompson v. Gaffey, 52 Neb., 3I7, 72 N. W. Rep., 314
    • Merrill v. Ithaca & 0. R. R. Co., i6 Wend. (N. Y.), 586
    • Koon v. Green- man, 7 Wend. (N. Y.), I2I
    • Derby v. Johnson, 2I Vt., I7.
  • 25
    San Francisco Bridge Co. v. Dumbarton Land & Imp. Co., ii9 Cal., 272, 5I Pac., 335.
  • 26
    Simmons v. Ocean Causeway, 2i App. Div., 30, 47 N. Y. Supp., 360.
  • 27
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • Reynolds v. Jourdan, 6 Cal., io8
    • Wiegel v. Boone, 64 Ark., 228, 41 S. W. Rep., 763
    • Chicago Training School v. Davies, 64 Ill. App., 503
    • Rice v. Partello, 88 Ill. App., 52
    • Hoyle v. Stellwagen, 28 Ind. App., 68i, 63 N. E. Rep., 780
    • Kehoe v. Rutherford, 56 N. J. L., 23, 27 Atl. Rep., 9I2.
  • 28
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Folliott v. Hunt, 2I Ill., 654
    • Steinburg v. Gebhadt, 4I Mo., 5I9.
  • 29
    Wellston Coal Co. v. Franklin Paper Co., 57 Ohio St., i82, 48 N. E., 888
  • 30
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Marquis v. Lauretson, 75 Ia., 23
    • Rodemner v. Hazelhurst, 9 Gill (Md.), 288.
    • Wiegel v. Boone, 64 Ark., 228, 4I S. W., 763.
  • 31
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Chicago v. Sexton, II5 Ill., 230, 2 N. E., 263
    • Fitzgerald v. Allen, 128 Mass., 232
    • Dolan v. Rodgers, i49 N. Y., 489, 44 N. E. Rep., x67.
    • Lyman v. Lincoln, 38 Neb., 794, 57 N. W., 53i
  • 32
    This reference contains 7 citations:
    • Charleston Ice Manuf. Co. v. Joyce, 63 Fed. Rep., 9i6, ii C. C. A., 496
    • Schillo v. McEwen, go Ill., 77
    • McAfferty v. Hale, 24 Ia., 355
    • Con- nolly v. Sullivan, 53 N. E., I43
    • Delaware & H. Canal Co. v. Dubois, 15 Wend., 87
    • Dubois v. C. Co., 12 Wend., 334
    • Farmer v. Francis, 12 Ire. (N. C), 282.
  • 33
    Simpson v. McDonald, 2 Ark., 370.
  • 34
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Jones v. Judd, 4 N. Y., 411
    • Heine v. Meyer, 6i N. Y., 171, 20 Am. Rep., 475.
  • 35
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Whitfield v. Zellnor, 24 Miss., 663
    • Theobald v. Burleigh, 66 N. H., 574, 23 Atl. Rep., 367
    • Doolittle v. Nash, 48 Vt., 44I.
  • 36
    This reference contains 9 citations:
    • Appleby v. Myers, L. R. 2 C. P., 651
    • Brumby v. Smith, 3 Ala., 123
    • Shanks v. Griffin, I4 B. Mon., 153.
    • Schwartz v. Saunders, 46 Ill., i8
    • Adams v. Nichols, i9 Pick., 275, 3i Am. Dec., 137
    • Tompkins v. Dudley, 25 N. Y., 272, 82 Am. Dec., 349
    • Galyon v. Ketchen, 85 Tenn., 55, I S. W., 508
    • Weis v. Dev- lin, 67 Tex., 507, 3 S. W., 726, 6o Am. Rep., 38
    • School Trustees v. Bennett, 27 N. J. L., 513, 72 Am. Dec., 373.
  • 37
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Schwartz v. Saunders, 46 Ill., i8
    • Garretty v. Brazell, 34 Iowa, ioo.
  • 38
    Butterfield v. Byron, 153 Mass., 517, 27 N. E., 667, 25 Am. St. Rep, 654, 12 L. R. A., 571.
  • 39
    This reference contains 9 citations:
    • Rawson v. Clark, 70 Ill., 656
    • Cleery v. Schier, 120 Mass., 210
    • But- terfield v. Byron, 153 Mass., 5I7, 27 N. E. Rep., 667, 25 Am. St., 654, 12 L. R. A., 571
    • Niblo v. Binsse, I Keyes, 476
    • Hayes v. Gross, g App. Div., I2, 40 N. Y. Supp., I098
    • Hollis v. Chapman, 36 Tex., i
    • Weis v. Devlin, 67 Tex., 507, 3 S. W. Rep., 726, 6o Am. Rep., 38
    • Hysell v. Sterling Coal & Manuf. Co., 46 W. Va., 158, 33 S. E. Rep., 95
    • Cook v. McCabe, 53 Wis., 250, 40 Am. Rep., 765, i0 N. W. Rep., 507.
  • 40
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Kenwood Bridge Co. v. Dunderdale, 50 Ill. App., 581
    • Niblo v. Binsse, I Keyes, 476.
  • 41
    Angus v. Scully, 176 Mass., 357, 57 N. E. Rep., 674, 49 L. R. A., 562.
  • 42
    Wilson v. Knott, 3 Humph., 473, 39 Am. Dec., i65.
  • 43
    Labowitz v. Frankfort, 4 N. Y. Misc., 275, 23 N. Y. Supp., i038.
  • 44
    Menetone v. Athawes, 3 Burr 1592.
  • 45
    This reference contains 10 citations:
    • Schwartz v. Saunders, 46 Ill., i8
    • Rawson v. Clark, 70 Ill., 656
    • Clark v. Busse, 82 Ill., 515
    • Butterfield v. Byron, 153 Mass., 517, 27 N. E. 667, 25 Am. St. Rep., 654, 12 L. R. A., 57I
    • Niblo v. Binsse, i Keyes, 476
    • Hayes v. Gross, 9 App. Div., 12, 40 N. Y. Supp., Io98
    • Labowitz v. Frank- fort, 4 N. Y. Misc., 275, 23 N. Y. Supp., 1038
    • Hollis v. Chapman, 36 Tex., i
    • Clark v. Franklin, 7 Leigh (Va.), i
    • Cook v. McCabe, 53 Wis., 250, IO N. W., 507, 40 Am. Rep., 765.
  • 46
    Wilson v. Knott, 3 Humph. (Tenn.), 473, 39 Am. Dec., i65.
  • 47
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Charleston I. M. Co. v. Joyce, 63 Fed., 9i6, ii C. C. A., 496
    • Ennis v. Pullman P. C. Co., Ill. 46 N. E., 439
    • Snow v. Ware, 13 Met. (Mass.), 42
    • Turner v. Mason, 65 Mich., 662, 32 N. W., 846
    • Wright v. Cumpsty, 41 Pa., i02.
  • 48
    Adamson v. Adamson, 9 Ark., 25
  • 49
    Hauptman v. Catlin, i E. D. Smith (N. Y.), 729.
  • 50
    ones v. Woodbury, ii B. Mon. (Ky.), I67.
  • 51
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Harrison Co. v. Byrne, 67 Ind., 21
    • Slusser v. Burlington, 47 Iowa, 300
    • Turner v. Grand Rapids, 20 Mich., 390
    • Dubois v. Delaware & H. C. Co., i2 Wend. (N. Y.), 334, 15 Wend., 87
  • 52
    This reference contains 10 citations:
    • Charleston Ice Manuf. Co. v. Joyce, 63 Fed., gi6, ii C. C. A., 496
    • Chicago R. R. v. Vosburgh, 46 Ill., 3II
    • Western Union R. Co. v. Smith, 75 Ill., 496
    • Elgin v. Joslyn, 136 Ill., 525, 26 N. E. Rep., I09o
    • Street v. Swain, 21 Ind., 203
    • Bailey v. Woods, I7 N. W.: 365
    • Wheeden v. Fiske. So N. H., I25
    • Hollinshead v. Mactier, 13 Wend. (N. Y.), 276
    • Rhodes v. Clute, 17 Utah, I37, 53 Pac., 99o
    • Hood v. Smtiley, 5 Wyo., 70, 96 Pac., 856.
  • 53
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Deery v. Hamilton, 4I Ia., i6.
    • Bank v. Bank of Commonwealth, I39 Mass., 513
    • Western Assur. Co. v. Towle, 65 Wis. 247
  • 54
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Bradshaw v. Beard, i2 C. B., N. S., 344
    • Cunningham v. Reardon, 98 Mass., 538
    • Patterson v. Patterson, 59 N. Y., 574.
  • 55
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Chase v. Corcoran, io6 Mass., 286
    • Sheldon v. Sherman, 42 Barb. (N. Y.), 368.
  • 56
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Mathews v. Davis, 6 Humph. (Tenn.), 324.
    • Wright v. Has- kell, 45 Me., 489
    • Welch v. Lawson, 32 Miss., 170
    • Ham v. Goodrich, 37 N. H., 185
    • Bender v. Bender, 37 Pa., 419.