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The Road to PPB: The Stages of Budget Reform

Allen Schick
Public Administration Review
Vol. 26, No. 4 (Dec., 1966), pp. 243-258
Published by: Wiley on behalf of the American Society for Public Administration
DOI: 10.2307/973296
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/973296
Page Count: 16
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The Road to PPB: The Stages of Budget Reform
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Abstract

Budgetary reform in the United States has evolved through three distinct stages, the last of which is associated with the contemporary Planning-Programming-Budgeting System. In the initial stage, the primary emphasis was on central control of spending and the budget was utilized to guard against administrative abuses. The detailed classification of objects of expenditure was the main control mechanism. The second stage was management-oriented. It was concerned with the efficient performance of work and prescribed activities. The performance budget, officially introduced by the Hoover Commission, was the major contribution of the management orientation. The third stage is reflected in the planning orientation of the new PPB system. It had roots in Keynesian economics and the new technology of systems analysis.

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