Four Systems of Policy, Politics, and Choice

Theodore J. Lowi
Public Administration Review
Vol. 32, No. 4 (Jul. - Aug., 1972), pp. 298-310
Published by: Wiley on behalf of the American Society for Public Administration
DOI: 10.2307/974990
Stable URL:
Page Count: 13
  • Download PDF
  • Cite this Item

You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:


Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

Four Systems of Policy, Politics, and Choice

Notes and References

This item contains 33 references.

Sources for Table II
  • Stephen K. Bailey and Howard Samuel, Congress at Work (New York; Holt, 1952).
  • Randall P. Ripley, "Congress Champions Aid to Airports." in F.N. Cleaveland, Congress and Urban Problems (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1968).
  • John Bibby and Roger David- son, On Capitol Hill (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967).
  • Raymond Bauer, et al., American Business and Public Policy (New York: Atherton, 1963).
  • David Cavers, "The Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938: Its Legislative History and Its Substantive Provisions," Law and Contemporary Problems (Winter1939).
  • Bailey and Samuel, op. cit.
  • Robinson-Patman. Joseph C. Palamountain, The Politics of Distribution (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1955).
  • This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Charles Hardin, The Politics of Agriculture (New York: The Free Press, 1952)
    • Gilbert Fite, George Peek and the Fight for Farm Parity (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954).
  • Taft-Hartley. Bailey and Samuel, op. cit.
  • Landrum-Griffin. Alan McAdams, Power Politics in Labor Legislation (New York: Columbia University Press, 1964).
  • Farm Security and Farmers Home Administrations. Grant McConnell, The Decline of Agrarian Democracy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1953).
  • This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Social Security. Paul H. Douglas, Social Security in the U.S. (New York: Whittlesey House, 1936)
    • Edwin E. Witte, The Development of the Social Security Act (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1962).
  • Aid to Education. Frank Munger and Richard Fenno, National Politics in Federal Aid to Education (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1962).
  • Employment Act of 1946. Stephen K. Bailey, Congress Makes a Law (New York: Columbia University Press, 1950).
  • Excess Profits. Bailey and Samuel, op. cit.
  • Internal Revenue. Stanley S. Surrey, "The Congress and the Tax Lobbyist: How Special Tax Provisions Get Enacted," Harvard Law Review (1957). pp. 1145 ff.
  • 1
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Robert Cushman, President's Committee on Admin- istrative Management, Report with Special Studies (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1937)
    • Cushman, The Independent Regulatoty Commissions (London: Oxford University Press, 1941), p. 3.
  • 2
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Theodore Lowi, "American Business and Public Pol- icy, Case Studies and. Political Theory," World Politics (July1964)
    • Lowi, "Decision Making vs. Policy Making: Toward an Antidote for Technocracy," Public Administration Review (May/June 1970).
  • 4
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Leonard White, The Republican Era (New York: The Free Press, 1958)
    • W. Binkley, President and Congress (New York: Vintage Ed, 1962), pp. 215 ff.
  • 5
    Binkley, op. cit., pp. 217-218
  • 6
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • ibid., p. 217
    • Wilson's treatment will be found in Congressional Government (New York: Meridian Edition, n.d.), pp. 58-81.
  • 7
    Samuel P. Huntington, "Political Modernization: America vs. Europe," World Politics (April1966), pp. 378414.
  • 9
    Binkley, op. cit., pp. 225, 217, 227
  • 10
    Leuchtenberg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932-1940 (1963), pp. 87-94, esp. 90
  • 11
    Binkley, op. cit., pp. 296-298
  • 12
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Lowi, Legislative Politics USA (Boston: Little, Brown, 1965), pp. 143 ff.
    • Chamberlain, The President, Congress and Legislation (New York: Columbia University Press, 1946), pp. 58 ff.
  • 13
    Ibid., p. 72
  • 14
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Leuchtenberg, op. cit., pp. 150 ff
    • James McG. Burns, The Lion and the Fox (New York: Harcourt, 1956): "Quite unwittingly the new President acted as midwife in the rebirth of labor action" (p. 215).
  • 17
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • David B. Truman, The Governmental Process (New York: Knopf, 1951), especially his notes on sources in chapters XI-XV
    • Earl Latham, The Group Theory of Politics (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1952)
  • 20
    James Rosenau (ed.). The Domestic Sources of Foreign Policy (New York: The Free Press, 1967).
  • 21
    "Population Policies and the Political System," mimeo., 1971.
  • 22
    Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition, Chapter II and pp. 193-199
  • 23
    The End of Liberalism, (New York: Norton, 1969), esp. chapters V and X.