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Virtues of the Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal

Virtues of the Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal: Volume Two

Ibn al-Jawzī
Edited and translated by Michael Cooperson
Volume editor Tahera Qutbuddin
Copyright Date: 2015
Pages: 544
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt15r403m
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    Virtues of the Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
    Book Description:

    Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241 H/855 AD), renowned for his profound knowledge of hadith-the reports of the Prophet's sayings and deeds-is a major figure in the history of Islam. Ibn Hanbal's piety and austerity made him a folk hero, especially after his principled resistance to the attempts of two Abbasid caliphs to force him to accept rationalist doctrine. His subsequent imprisonment and flogging became one of the most dramatic episodes of medieval Islamic history. Ibn Hanbal's resistance influenced the course of Islamic law, the rise of Sunnism, and the legislative authority of the caliphate.

    Virtues of the Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbalis a translation of the biography of Ibn Hanbal penned by the Baghdad preacher, scholar, and storyteller, Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 597 H/1201 AD). It includes insights into Ibn Hanbal's childhood, travels, and teachings, as well as descriptions of his way of life. This second and final volume gives a vivid account of Ibn Hanbal's legendary confrontation with the caliphal Inquisition, including his imprisonment, trial, and flogging. Ultimately, it recounts how the people of Baghdad came to admire him as a symbol of Sunni Islam.

    eISBN: 978-0-8147-3787-3
    Subjects: Language & Literature, Religion
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents (pp. vii-1)
  3. Chapter 51: His Love of Poverty and His Affection for the Poor (pp. 2-5)

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad, who was informed by Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar, who was informed by ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Jaʿfar, who cites Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Khallāl, who cites Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥusayn, who heard Abū Bakr al-Marrūdhī report:

    [Al-Marrūdhī:] Aḥmad loved the poor. I never saw poor men treated as well as they were when sitting in his company.

    Al-Khallāl cites Abū Bakr al-Marrūdhī, who reports:

    [Al-Marrūdhī:] Aḥmad once mentioned someone who was poor and ill, and told me, “Go and ask him what he wants us to do for him.”

    Then he handed...

  4. Chapter 52: His Humility (pp. 4-13)

    We cite Abū Manṣūr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad, who cites Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī ibn Thābit, who cites Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Yaʿqūb, who heard Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ḥamduwayh report that he read a report in the handwriting of Abū ʿAmr al-Mustamlī (the amanuensis), who heard ʿAbd Allāh ibn Bishr al-Ṭālqānī say that he heard Muḥammad ibn Ṭāriq al-Baghdādī say:

    [Muḥammad ibn Ṭāriq:] I was sitting next to Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal and I asked him if I could use his inkpot.

    He looked at me. “Neither one of us is as scrupulous as all that,” he said with a...

  5. Chapter 53: His Accepting Invitations and His Withdrawal upon Seeing Things He Disapproved Of (pp. 12-15)

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Nāṣir, who cites al-Mubārak ibn ʿAbd al-Jabbār, who cites Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar al-Barmakī, who cites Abū ʿAbd Allāh ibn Baṭṭah, who heard Muḥammad ibn Ayyūb report that he heard Ibrāhīm al-Ḥarbī report:

    [Al-Ḥarbī:] Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal would accept invitations to marriages, weddings, and circumcisions, and eat what was served.

    We cite Ibn Nāṣir, who was informed by Abū ʿAlī l-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad, who cites Abū l-Fatḥ ibn Abī l-Fawāris, who cites ʿUthmān ibn Aḥmad, who heard Abū Shuʿayb Ṣāliḥ ibn ʿImrān al-Daʿʿāʾ report:

    [Al-Daʿʿāʾ:] A man once invited Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal to an event and Aḥmad...

  6. Chapter 54: His Preference for Solitude (pp. 14-19)

    We cite Ismāʿīl ibn Aḥmad and Muḥammad ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cite Ḥamd ibn Aḥmad, who heard Abū Nuʿaym al-Hāfiẓ report that he heard his father report that he heard Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar report that he heard Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s son ʿAbd Allāh report:

    [ʿAbd Allāh:] My father could bear solitude better than anyone. Bishr,4great as he was, couldn’t stand to be alone: he would go out visiting an hour here, an hour there.

    Abū Nuʿaym heard Sulaymān ibn Aḥmad report that he heard Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s son ʿAbd Allāh say:

    [ʿAbd Allāh:] The only places anyone...

  7. Chapter 55: His Wish to Live in Obscurity and His Efforts to Remain Unnoticed (pp. 20-23)

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad, who cites Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar al-Barmakī, who cites ʿAlī ibn Mardak, who heard ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Ḥātim report that he heard his father report that he heard Aḥmad ibn Abī l-Ḥawārī report that he heard ʿUbayd al-Qāriʾ report:

    [ʿUbayd al-Qāriʾ:] Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s uncle once went to see him and found him with his chin cupped in his hand. “Nephew,” he asked, “what’s troubling you? Why so glum?”

    Uncle,” Aḥmad replied, “happiness is when God makes sure that no one’s ever heard of you.”

    Ibn Abī Ḥātim...

  8. Chapter 56: His Fear of God (pp. 22-27)

    We cite Ismāʿīl ibn Aḥmad al-Samarqandī and Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Bāqī, who cite Ḥamd ibn Aḥmad, who cites Abū Nuʿaym Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh, who heard Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar report that he heard Muḥammad ibn Ismāʿīl ibn Aḥmad report that he heard Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s son Ṣāliḥ report:

    [Ṣāliḥ:] Whenever someone said a prayer for my father, he would say, “Call no man blessed until his work is done.”

    I often heard him say, “God save us! God save us!”

    I heard him report that he heard Yūnus ibn Muḥammad report that he heard Ḥammād ibn Zayd report that Yaḥyā...

  9. Chapter 57: His Preoccupation and Absentmindedness (pp. 26-27)

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad, who was informed by Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar, who was informed by ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Jaʿfar, who heard Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Khallāl report that he heard Abū Bakr al-Marrūdhī report:

    [Al-Marrūdhī:] I once went out with Aḥmad leaning on my arm. We were approached by a woman carrying a long-necked lute13 out in the open. I took it from her, broke it, and started stamping on it. The whole time, Aḥmad stood there staring at the ground and saying nothing. Soon everyone knew about the incident—everyone except for...

  10. Chapter 58: His Devotions (pp. 28-37)

    We cite the two Muḥammads, Ibn ʿAbd al-Malik and Ibn Nāṣir, who cite Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Muʿaddal, who was informed by Ibn Shādhān, who cites Ibn ʿAlam, who heard Aḥmad’s son Ṣāliḥ say:

    [Ṣāliḥ:] My father would never let anyone else draw the water for his ablutions. Whenever the bucket came up full, he would say, “Praise God!”

    I asked him what the reason was.

    “Son,” he replied, “haven’t you heard what God says? «Say, ‘Have you considered if your water were to sink into the ground, who could then bring you flowing water?’»”14

    We cite Ismāʿīl ibn Aḥmad and...

  11. Chapter 59: His Performances of the Pilgrimage (pp. 36-41)

    We cite Ismāʿīl ibn Aḥmad and Muḥammad ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cite Ḥamd ibn Aḥmad, who heard Abū Nuʿaym Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh report that he heard Sulaymān ibn Aḥmad report that he heard Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s son ʿAbd Allāh report:

    [ʿAbd Allāh:] My father made five pilgrimages: three on foot and two riding. On some of them he spent only twenty dirhams.

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf, who cites Abū Isḥāq ibn ʿUmar al-Barmakī; and we cite ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAlī l-Muqriʾ, who cites ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Aḥmad al-Suyūrī, who...

  12. Chapter 60: His Extemporaneous Prayers and Supplications (pp. 40-47)

    We cite the two Muḥammads, Ibn Nāṣir and Ibn ʿAbd al-Bāqī, who cite Ḥamd ibn Aḥmad, who cites Abū Nuʿaym al-Ḥāfiẓ, who heard Abū ʿAlī ʿĪsā ibn Muḥammad al-Jurayjī report that he heard Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s son ʿAbd Allāh report:

    [ʿAbd Allāh:] At the end of his ritual prayers, my father often used to say, “God, you have safeguarded me from prostrating myself before any but You. Safeguard me likewise from seeking anything from any but You.”

    Finally I said, “I hear you saying that a lot. Are you following a precedent?”

    “Yes,” he answered. “Wakīʿ ibn al-Jarrāh used to...

  13. Chapter 61: His Manifestations of Grace and the Effectiveness of His Prayers (pp. 46-53)

    We cite Ismāʿīl ibn Aḥmad and Muḥammad ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cite Ḥamd ibn Aḥmad, who cites Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh, who heard his father report that he heard Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar report that he heard Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s son ʿAbd Allāh report:

    [ʿAbd Allāh:] Once I saw my father threaten some ants and ask them to leave his house. They left in a great dark mass and never returned.

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Abī Muḥammad, who was informed by Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar, who was informed by ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Jaʿfar,...

  14. Chapter 62: The Number of Wives He Had (pp. 52-57)

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad, who was informed by Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar, who was informed by ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Jaʿfar, who heard Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Hārūn report that he heard Abū Bakr al-Marrūdhī say:

    [Al-Marrūdhī:] I heard Aḥmad say, “I didn’t marry until I was forty.”

    [The author:] His first wife was ʿAbbāsah bint al-Faḍl, who was Ṣāliḥ’s mother.

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Nāṣir, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir, who was informed by Abū Isḥāq al-Barmakī, who was informed by ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Jaʿfar, who heard Abū Bakr al-Khallāl report:

    [Al-Khallāl:]...

  15. Chapter 63: His Concubines (pp. 58-61)

    Aḥmad, God have mercy on him, bought a concubine named Ḥusn.

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad, who was informed by al-Barmakī, who was informed by ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, who was informed by Abū Bakr al-Khallāl, who heard Muḥammad ibn al-ʿAbbās report that he heard Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī report that he heard Abū Bakr ibn Yaḥyā report that Abū Yūsuf ibn Bukhtān said:

    [Abū Yūsuf ibn Bukhtān:] When Aḥmad asked us to buy the girl for him, Fūrān and I went. As we were leaving, Aḥmad came after me and said, “Make sure she’s got...

  16. Chapter 64: The Number of His Children (pp. 62-65)

    We have already mentioned that Ṣāliḥ was born to one mother and ʿAbd Allāh to another, and that Ḥusn the slave bore him al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn, then a third child also named al-Ḥasan, then Muḥammad, Saʿīd, and Zaynab, who was called Umm ʿAlī.

    We cite Ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad, who was informed by Abū Isḥāq al-Barmakī, who was informed by ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Jaʿfar, who heard Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Khallāl, who cites Abū Ghālib ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad, who reported that Ṣāliḥ said to him:

    [Ṣāliḥ:] My father once started apologizing to me for Ḥasan and...

  17. Chapter 65: The Lives of His Children and Descendants (pp. 64-71)

    Ṣālih, who was called Abū l-Faḍl, was the oldest of Aḥmad’s children. He was born in 203 [818–19]. His father loved him and treated him generously. Burdened with children when he was still young, Ṣāliḥ was unable to transmit as many of his father’s reports as he might have, though he still transmitted quite a few, along with reports he learned from Abū l-Walīd al-Ṭayālisī, Ibrāhīm ibn al-Faḍl al-Dhāriʿ (the taker of measures)44, and ʿAlī ibn al-Madīnī. Transmitting in turn from him were his son Zuhayr, al-Baghawī, and Muḥammad ibn Makhlad, among others. He moved to Isfahan after being...

  18. Chapter 66: How and Why the Inquisition Began (pp. 72-75)

    Before the rise of the Secessionists, there was general agreement on the ancestral principle that the Qurʾan is the speech of God and not created.49Even when the Secessionists adopted the belief that the Qurʾan is created, they kept it a secret. Thus the principle remained inviolate down through the reign of al-Rashīd.50

    We cite ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad al-Qazzāz, who cites Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī ibn Thābit, who cites Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Abī Ṭāhir al-Daqqāq, who cites Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn Sulaymān al-Najjād, who heard Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s son ʿAbd Allāh report that he heard Aḥmad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Dawraqī...

  19. Chapter 67: His Experience with al-Maʾmūn (pp. 76-87)

    According to his biographers, al-Maʾmūn sent a letter from al-Raqqah55to the chief of the Baghdad police, Isḥāq ibn Ibrāhīm, telling him to put the community to the test, which he did.

    We cite the two Muḥammads, Ibn Nāṣir and Ibn ʿAbd al-Bāqī, who cite Ḥamd ibn Aḥmad, who cites Abū Nuʿaym Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh, who heard Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar and ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad report that they heard Muḥammad ibn Ismāʿīl ibn Aḥmad; and we cite Hibat Allāh ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn al-Ḥāsib, who cites al-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad ibn al-Bannā, who cites Abū l-Fatḥ ibn Abī l-Fawāris, who cites Aḥmad...

  20. Chapter 68: What Happened after the Death of al-Maʾmūn (pp. 86-93)

    As soon as al-Maʾmūn’s death was announced, Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal and Muḥammad ibn Nūḥ were sent back to Iraq in irons, as we have seen. Muḥammad ibn Nūḥ died on the way and Aḥmad, still in chains, completed the journey.

    We cite ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cites ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, who cites Abū Yaʿqūb, who cites his grandfather, who cites Muḥammad ibn Abī Jaʿfar al-Mundhirī, who along with Abū Aḥmad ibn Abī Usāmah heard Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Būshanjī say:

    [Al-Būshanjī:] During the reign of al-Maʾmūn, Aḥmad was taken away to the Byzantine frontier. He had traveled...

  21. Chapter 69: His Experience with al-Muʿtaṣim (pp. 92-135)

    When al-Maʾmūn died, Aḥmad was brought back to Baghdad and imprisoned there. Then he was tried by al-Muʿtaṣim. The chief judge at the time was Aḥmad ibn Abī Duʾād, who had persuaded the caliph to test people’s belief that the Qurʾan is created.70

    Al-Marrūdhī said:

    When Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal was put in prison, the jailer came and asked him whether the Hadith about tyrants and those who serve them was authentic.71Aḥmad told him it was.

    “Am I one of those who serve them?” asked the jailer.

    “Those who serve are the ones who cut your hair, wash your clothes,...

  22. Chapter 70: His Reception by the Elders after His Release, and Their Prayers for Him (pp. 136-149)

    We cite Ismāʿīl ibn Aḥmad al-Samarqandī and Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Bāqī, who cite Ḥamd ibn Aḥmad, who heard Abū Nuʿaym al-Ḥāfiẓ report that he heard Sulaymān ibn Aḥmad report that he heard al-Ḥusayn ibn Muḥammad report that he heard Muhannaʾ ibn Yaḥyā report:

    [Muhannaʾ ibn Yaḥyā:] I saw Yaʿqūb ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Saʿd al-Zuhrī kissing Aḥmad on the forehead and the face after he was released from jail. I also saw Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd al-Hāshimī kissing his head and forehead.

    We cite ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cites ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, who heard Abū Yaʿqūb al-Ḥāfiẓ report...

  23. Chapter 71: His Teaching of Hadith after the Death of al-Muʿtaṣim (pp. 148-149)

    We cite al-Karūkhī, who cites ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, who cites Abū Yaʿqūb, who cites his grandfather, who cites Muḥammad ibn Abī Jaʿfar al-Mundhirī, who heard Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Būshanjī say:

    [Al-Būshanjī:] In ’27 [842], Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal taught Hadith openly in Baghdad. That was right after al-Muʿtaṣim died. We were in Kufa when we heard the news. I headed back to Baghdad and caught up with him in Rajab of that year, while he was still teaching. Then, with three days left in Shaʿbān, he stopped of his own accord. The authorities hadn’t told him to stop, but...

  24. Chapter 72: His Experience with al-Wāthiq (pp. 150-167)

    In Rabīʿ I 227 [ January 842], Abū Jaʿfar Hārūn al-Wāthiq, son of al-Muʿtaṣim, succeeded to the caliphate. Although Ibn Abī Duʾād persuaded him to continue putting people to the test over the createdness of the Qurʾan, he avoided another confrontation with Aḥmad, either because he was aware of his ability to withstand coercion or because he was afraid of what would happen if Aḥmad were punished. He did, however, write to him saying, “Take care that we never find each other in the same place.” Aḥmad accordingly went into hiding for the remainder of al-Wāthiq’s reign. After several months...

  25. Chapter 73: His Experience with al-Mutawakkil (pp. 166-215)

    On Wednesday, with six nights left in Dhu l-Hijjah 232 [August 11, 847], al-Mutawakkil ʿalā llāh, who was then twenty-six years of age, succeeded al-Wāthiq as caliph. Through him God brought about the triumph of thesunnahand put an end to the suffering caused by the Inquisition, much to the gratification of the people.

    We cite Abū Manṣūr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad, who cites Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī ibn Thābit, who cites Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Isḥāq al-Khāzin, who cites Aḥmad ibn Bishr ibn Saʿīd al-Khiraqī, who heard Abū Rawq al-Hizzānī report that he heard Muḥammad ibn Khalaf say that...

  26. Chapter 74: His Refusing Ibn Ṭāhir’s Request to Visit Him (pp. 214-219)

    We cite ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAlī l-Muqriʾ, who cites ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Aḥmad al-Suyūrī, who cites ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn al-Faḍl, who heard ʿAlī ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Bardhaʿī report that he heard Abū Muḥammad ibn Abī Ḥātim report that he heard Aḥmad’s son Ṣāliḥ report:

    [Ṣāliḥ:] When Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ṭāhir came to Baghdad, he sent a message to my father saying, “I’d like you to come and see me. Tell me the day you prefer and I’ll make sure there’s no one else here.”

    My father replied, “I am a man who has never...

  27. Chapter 75: What Happened When His Two Sons and His Uncle Accepted Gifts from the Authorities (pp. 218-229)

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf, who cites Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar al-Barmakī; and we cite ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAlī l-Muqriʾ, who cites ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Aḥmad al-Suyūrī, who cites ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Aḥmad ibn al-Faḍl, who along with al-Barmakī cites ʿAlī ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, who heard ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Ḥātim report that he heard Aḥmad’s son Ṣāliḥ report:

    [Ṣāliḥ:] A short while after my father came back from Samarra, he summoned me and said, “Ṣālīh, I want you to give up that stipend. Stop accepting it and don’t transfer it to...

  28. Chapter 76: Some Major Figures Who Capitulated to the Inquisition (pp. 228-233)

    Among the prominent men of learning who capitulated were ʿAlī ibn al-Jaʿd; Ismāʿīl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUlayyah175; Saʿīd ibn Sulaymān al-Wāsiṭī, known as Saʿduwayh; Isḥāq ibn Abī Isrāʾīl; Abū Ḥassān al-Ziyādī; Bishr ibn al-Walīd; ʿUbayd Allāh ibn ʿUmar al-Qawārīrī; ʿAlī ibn Abī Muqātil; al-Faḍl ibn Ghānim; al-Ḥasan ibn Ḥammād Sajjadah; Ismāʿīl ibn Abī Masʿūd; Muḥammad ibn Saʿd, scribe to al-Wāqidī; Aḥmad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Dawraqī; Ismāʿīl ibn Dāwūd al-Jawzī; Yaḥyā ibn Maʿīn; ʿAlī ibn al-Madīnī; Abū Khaythamah Zuhayr ibn Ḥarb; Abū Naṣr al-Tammār; and Abū Kurayb.

    The capitulations that were hardest for Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal to bear were those of Abū...

  29. Chapter 77: His Comments on Those Who Capitulated (pp. 232-245)

    We cite Abū Manṣūr al-Qazzāz, who cites Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī ibn Thābit, who cites al-Barqānī, who cites Yaʿqūb ibn Mūsā l-Ardabīlī, who heard Aḥmad ibn Ṭāhir ibn al-Najm report that he heard Saʿīd ibn ʿAmr al-Bardaʿī report that he heard Abū Zurʿah—that is, al-Rāzī—say:

    [Abū Zurʿah:] Aḥmad held that one should not write down reports transmitted by Abū Naṣr al-Tammār, Yaḥyā ibn Maʿīn, or anyone else who capitulated to the Inquisition.

    Al-Barqānī also cited al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī l-Tamīmī, who heard Abū ʿAwānah Yaʿqūb ibn Isḥāq al-Isfarāyīnī, who heard al-Maymūnī say:

    [Al-Maymūnī:] I have it on good...

  30. Chapter 78: Those Who Defied the Inquisition (pp. 244-259)

    We cite Abū Manṣūr al-Qazzāz, who cites Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī ibn Thābit, who cites Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Yaʿqūb, who cites Muḥammad ibn Nuʿaym al-Ḍabbī, who heard Abū l-ʿAbbās al-Sayyārī say that he heard Abū l-ʿAbbās ibn Saʿīd al-Marwazī say:

    [Al-Marwazī:] Only four men, all of them from Marv, remained steadfast throughout the Inquisition: Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Aḥmad ibn Naṣr, Muḥammad ibn Nūḥ, and Nuʿaym ibn Ḥammād.

    Abū l-Ḥusayn ibn al-Munādī mentions the following men as having remained steadfast as well: Abū Nuʿaym al-Faḍl ibn Dukayn, ʿAffān, al-Buwayṭī, Ismāʿīl ibn Abī Uways al-Madanī, Abū Muṣʿab al-Madanī, and Yaḥyā...

  31. Chapter 79: His Final Illness (pp. 260-275)

    We cite ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cites ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, who cites Abū Yaʿqūb, who cites al-Ḥasan ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Naṣr, who heard Yaʿqūb ibn Isḥāq report that he heard Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s son ʿAbd Allāh report:

    [ʿAbd Allāh:] My father told me: “I’ve lived seventy-seven years and started my seventy-eighth.”

    That same night he took fever. He died on the tenth, in ’41 [855].

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Nāṣir, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad, who was informed by Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar, who was informed by Ibn Baṭṭah, who cites Ibn Makhlad, who...

  32. Chapter 80: His Date of Death and His Age When He Died (pp. 274-279)

    We cite ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad al-Qazzāz, who cites Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī ibn Thābit, who cites Ibn Rizq, who cites ʿUthmān ibn Aḥmad al-Daqqāq, who heard Ḥanbal ibn Isḥāq report:

    [Ḥanbal:] Aḥmad died on a Friday in Rabīʿ I 241 [ July or August 855], at the age of seventy-seven.

    We cite Ismāʿīl ibn Aḥmad, who cites ʿUmar ibn ʿUbayd Allāh al-Baqqāl, who cites Abū l-Ḥusayn ibn Bishrān, who heard ʿUthmān ibn Aḥmad report that he heard Ḥanbal report:

    [Ḥanbal:] Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal died in 241, on a Friday in Rabīʿ I, at the age of seventy-seven.

    We cite ʿAbd...

  33. Chapter 81: How His Body Was Washed and Shrouded (pp. 280-283)

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad, who cites Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar, who cites ʿAlī ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, who cites ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Ḥātim, who heard Aḥmad’s son Ṣāliḥ report:

    [Ṣāliḥ:] When my father died the streets filled with mourners. I sent word that I would bring his body out when the afternoon prayer was over.

    Ibn Ṭāhir sent us his chamberlain Muẓaffar with bundles of cloth, perfumes, and a message: “The emir conveys his greetings and says, ‘I am doing what the Commander of the Faithful would do if he were here.’”

    I...

  34. Chapter 82: On Who Sought to Pray over Him (pp. 282-285)

    We cite Ismāʿīl ibn Aḥmad and Muḥammad ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cite Ḥamd ibn Aḥmad, who cites Abū Nuʿaym ibn ʿAbd Allāh, who heard Sulaymān ibn Aḥmad report that he heard Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s son ʿAbd Allāh say:

    [ʿAbd Allāh:] My father died before noon on a Friday. Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ṭāhir pushed us aside and performed the funeral prayer for him, though we and the tribesmen of Hāshim prayed over the body while it was still in the house. We buried him after the afternoon prayer.

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn...

  35. Chapter 83: The Number of People Who Prayed over Him (pp. 284-291)

    We cite ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Abī l-Qāsim al-Karūkhī, who cites ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, who cites Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Jārūdī—or Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad citing him—who heard Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar ibn Maṭar report that he heard al-Haytham ibn Khalaf report:

    [Al-Haytham ibn Khalaf:] We buried Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal in 241, after the afternoon prayer. I never saw so many people in one place.

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad, who was informed by Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar, who was informed by ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Jaʿfar, who heard Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Khallāl report that...

  36. Chapter 84: The Praising of the Sunnah and the Decrying of Innovation That Took Place during His Funeral Procession (pp. 290-293)

    We cite ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cites ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, who cites Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ismāʿīl al-Sīrjānī, who cites Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī l-Sulaymānī, who heard al-Ḥasan ibn Ismāʿīl al-Fārisī say that he heard Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Būshanjī say:

    [Al-Būshanjī:] During the funeral prayers for Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, some of the mourners cursed al-Karābīsī openly. The cursing was reported to al-Mutawakkil, who asked who he was. Told that al-Karābīsī had invented a doctrine previously unknown, he ordered him confined to his house until he died.

    We cite ʿAbd al-Malik, who cites al-Anṣārī, who cites Abū Yaʿqūb,...

  37. Chapter 85: The Crowds That Gathered around His Grave (pp. 292-293)

    We were informed by Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Bannā, who cites his father:

    [Al-Ḥasan ibn al-Bannā:] Abū Ḥasan al-Tamīmī cites his father as saying that his grandfather attended the funeral of Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal and reported, “I stayed for an entire week hoping to reach the grave but there were too many people there. It took a week for me to get through.”...

  38. Chapter 86: His Estate (pp. 294-295)

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad, who was informed by Ibrahīm ibn ʿUmar, who was informed by ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Jaʿfar, who cites Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Khallāl, who cites Muḥammad ibn Abī Hārūn to the effect that Isḥāq reported to them:

    [Isḥāq:] When Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal died, he left six or seven coins in a rag, worth twodāniqs, that he used to use to wipe his face....

  39. Chapter 87: Reactions to His Death (pp. 294-297)

    We cite Abū Manṣūr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad al-Qazzāz, who cites Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī ibn Thābit al-Khaṭīb; and we cite Muḥammad ibn Nāṣir, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf, who cites Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar al-Barmakī; and we cite ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAlī l-Muqriʾ, who cites ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Aḥmad al-Suyūrī, who cites ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn al-Faḍl, who along with al-Barmakī cites ʿAlī ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Mardak; and we cite Ismāʿīl ibn Aḥmad and Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Bāqī, who cite Ḥamd ibn Aḥmad, who cites Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥāfiẓ Abū Nuʿaym,...

  40. Chapter 88: Reaction to His Death on the Part of the Jinns (pp. 296-299)

    We cite ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Abī l-Qāsim al-Karūkhī, who cites ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, who cites Isḥāq ibn Ibrāhīm al-Ḥāfiẓ, who cites Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-Laʾʾāl, who heard Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-Makkī report that he heard ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ibrāhīm al-Azdī report that he heard Abū Bakr al-Marrūdhī report:

    [Al-Marrūdhī:] I heard this from a man in Tarsus.

    “I’m from Yemen, and I have a daughter who was possessed. I brought in some exorcists who drove out her jinni and made it promise not to return. But then a year later it came back.

    “‘Didn’t...

  41. Chapter 89: On the Condolences Offered to His Family (pp. 300-303)

    Aḥmad’s children reported that many people, including certain righteous men who had kept their identities a secret, came to offer their condolences. Without spending too much time on the subject, I will present a few of the more famous accounts.

    We cite Ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad, who cites Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar, who cites ʿAlī ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, who heard ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Ḥātim report:

    [Ibn Abī Ḥātim:] We heard Aḥmad’s son Ṣāliḥ report:

    A few days after my father died, Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ṭāhir received a letter from al-Mutawakkil ordering him to...

  42. Chapter 90: A Selection of the Verses Spoken in Praise of Him in Life and in Commemoration of Him in Death (pp. 304-325)

    We cite ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cites ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, who cites Muḥammad ibn al-Muntaṣir al-Qutaybī, who cites Abū Bakr ibn Abī l-Faḍl al-Muzakkī, who cites Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Sunnī, who heard Ibrāhīm ibn Isḥāq al-Anṣārī report:

    [Al-Anṣārī:] Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s son ʿAbd Allāh recited these verses about his father, by Saʿīd al-Yakhāmurī:

    Our tow’ring God, from high on pillared seat

    Doth you, his servant Aḥmad, guide aright.

    Our learnèd men and pious poor alike

    Call you their chieftain, you their noblest lord;

    Tis you they follow, you whose words they heed,

    And you they trust...

  43. Chapter 91: His Dreams (pp. 326-327)

    We cite ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cites ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, who cites Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Jalīl ibn Aḥmad, who cites Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Ibrāhīm; and we cite Ibn Nāṣir, who was informed by Abū ʿAlī l-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad, who cites Abū Muḥammad ibn Khallāl, who cites ʿUbayd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Zuhrī, who like Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Ibrāhīm heard Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Miqsam report that he heard ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Aḥmad al-Nihāwandī say that he heard Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s son ʿAbd Allāh say:

    [ʿAbd Allāh:] I heard my father say, “The Lord of...

  44. Chapter 92: Dreams in Which He Appeared to Others (pp. 328-369)

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Abī Manṣūr, who cites ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf, who cites Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar al-Barmakī, who cites ʿAlī ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, who cites ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Ḥātim, who heard Abū Zurʿah report that he heard Muḥammad ibn Mihrān al-Jammāl say:

    [Muḥammad ibn Mihrān al-Jammāl:] Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal appeared to me in a dream wearing a striped mantle, or one with lozenges. He seemed to be in Rey, trying to get to Friday prayer. I asked a dream interpreter what it meant. He said Aḥmad would become renowned for some great deed. It wasn’t long...

  45. Chapter 93: Dreams in Which He Was Mentioned (pp. 370-423)

    We cite ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cites ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, who cites Ghālib ibn ʿAlī, who cites Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥusayn, who heard Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Shādhān report that he heard Abū l-Qāsim ibn Ṣadaqah say that he heard ʿAlī ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Ṭalḥī say that al-Rabīʿ told him:

    [Al-Rabīʿ:] Al-Shāfiʿī told me to take a letter he had written, deliver it to Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, and bring back his reply. When I reached Baghdad, I found Ibn Ḥanbal praying the dawn prayer and I joined him. As soon as he finished I handed him...

  46. Chapter 94: The Benefit of Visiting His Grave (pp. 422-427)

    We cite ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad al-Qazzāz, who cites Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī ibn Thābit, who cites Aḥmad ibn Abī Jaʿfar, who heard ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, al-Zajjāj’s young manservant, say that he heard Abū l-Faraj al-Hindibāʾī say:

    [Al-Hindibāʾī:] I used to visit Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal’s grave but then stopped. After some time had passed, I had a dream where a voice said, “You’ve stopped visiting the exemplar of thesunnah.”

    We cite Muḥammad ibn Nāṣir al-Ḥāfiẓ, who was informed by Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Bannā; and we were informed by Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥasan:

    [Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥasan:] My father cited Abū Ṭāhir al-Maymūn...

  47. Chapter 95: The Benefit of Being Buried Near Him (pp. 426-433)

    We cite Abū Manṣūr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad al-Qazzāz, who cites Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī ibn Thābit, who heard al-Ḥasan ibn Abī Ṭālib say that he heard Yūsuf ibn ʿUmar al-Qawwās report that he heard Abū Muqātil Muḥammad ibn Shujāʿ report; and we cite Muḥammad ibn Nāṣir, who cites al-Mubārak ibn ʿAbd al-Jabbār, who cites Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wāḥid al-Ḥarīrī, who cites Abū ʿUmar ibn Ḥayyuwayh, who heard ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq al-Marwazī, who like Abū Muqātil heard Abū Bakr ibn Abī l-Dunyā report:

    [Ibn Abī l-Dunyā:] I heard Abū Yūsuf ibn Bukhtān—who was a good...

  48. Chapter 96: The Punishments That Befall Anyone Who Attacks Him (pp. 432-449)

    We cite ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cites ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, who heard Abū Yaʿqūb al-Ḥāfiẓ say that he heard ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rizq say that he heard Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm say that he heard Aḥyad ibn Jarīr al-Jawharī say that he heard Muḥammad ibn Fuḍayl say:

    [Muḥammad ibn Fuḍayl:] I made some remarks critical of Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal after which my tongue started to hurt and wouldn’t stop. One night I heard a voice in my sleep saying, “It’s because of what you said about that good man,” over and over. When I...

  49. Chapter 97: What to Think about Anyone Who Speaks Ill of Him (pp. 448-455)

    We were informed by ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Abī l-Qāsim, who cites ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, who heard Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Sunnī say that he heard Abū Zayd al-Iṣfahānī say that he heard Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Salīl say that he heard Ibn Abī Ḥātim say that he heard Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Hārūn al-Mukharrimī say:

    [Al-Mukharrimī:] If you hear a man slander Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, you know he’s an innovator.

    We cite ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad al-Qazzāz, who cites Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī ibn Thābit, who cites Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rizq, who heard Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad ibn Nuṣayr report...

  50. Chapter 98: Why We Chose His Legal School over the Others (pp. 454-469)

    Recall—may God lead you aright!—that when faced with a difficult choice, the only way to discern the right course of action is to put personal feelings and partisanship aside and search systematically for the truth, without undue deference to the names and reputations of those involved. If you do this, the fog of perplexity will dissipate. If, on the other hand, you allow yourself to be led astray by your inclinations, it will be difficult to find your way back to the straight and narrow.

    Note, then, that after examining the evidentiary basis of the Law and the...

  51. Chapter 99: On the Excellence of His Associates and Successors (pp. 468-473)

    We cite Ibn Nāṣir, who was informed by Abū ʿAlī l-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad, who cites Abū l-Fatḥ ibn Abī l-Fawāris, who cites ʿUmar ibn Jaʿfar ibn Salm, who heard Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī l-Abbār report that ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-Warrāq said:

    [Al-Warrāq:] To criticize Aḥmad’s associates is to attack Aḥmad himself. Anyone who does that must be harboring a grudge of some kind and is no Sunni.

    We were informed by Abū l-Qāsim al-Ḥarīrī, on the authority of Abū Isḥāq al-Barmakī, on the authority of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Jaʿfar, who cites Abū Bakr al-Khallāl, who heard Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī l-Simsār report that...

  52. Chapter 100: His Most Prominent Associates and Their Successors from His Time to Our Own (pp. 474-521)

    The number of Aḥmad’s associates, and of those learned scholars and good men who, during the years that have elapsed between his death and our own time, have followed his path is too large to count. Here I will mention only the most prominent, arranged in nine generations. May God ensure success!

    Aḥmad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Dawraqī. Heard reports from Ismāʿīl ibn ʿUlayyah, Yazīd ibn Zurayʿ, and Hushaym.

    Aḥmad ibn Aṣram ibn Khuzaymah al-Muzanī. Heard reports from ʿAbd al-Aʿlā ibn Ḥammād and others.

    Aḥmad ibn Jaʿfar al-Wakīʿī. Heard reports from Wakīʿ and Abū Muʿāwiyah.

    Aḥmad ibn Ḥumayd, Abū Ṭālib al-Mushkānī. Lived...

  53. [Colophons] (pp. 522-523)
  54. Notes (pp. 524-549)
  55. Glossary of Names and Terms (pp. 550-557)
  56. Bibliography (pp. 558-566)
  57. Further Reading (pp. 567-567)
  58. Index (pp. 568-581)
  59. About the NYU Abu Dhabi Institute (pp. 582-582)
  60. About the Typefaces (pp. 583-583)
  61. About the Editor–Translator (pp. 584-584)