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Community Under Stress

Community Under Stress

Copyright Date: 1949
Pages: 180
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    Community Under Stress
    Book Description:

    The book description for "Community Under Stress" is currently unavailable.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-7704-1
    Subjects: Anthropology
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Table of Contents

Export Selected Citations
  1. Front Matter (pp. i-vi)
  2. Preface (pp. vii-xii)
  3. Table of Contents (pp. xiii-2)
  4. 1 Introduction (pp. 3-8)

    “Objectivity” and “subjectivity” are in failing repute as wholly commendatory or wholly condemnatory attributes of social research. To say that complete objectivity is possible in such a study as this would, I believe, be false representation, yet objectivity has been attempted. During the enforced participation within a social situation which made uncertain the continuance of life itself, complete detachment from that situation was impossible. As the participant observer technique employed voluntarily in studies of primitive cultures and of contemporary societies has yielded impersonal, unbiased interpretation and evaluation of the human behavior under consideration, so, it seems to me, the same...

  5. 2 Social and Economic Structure of the Philippines at Outbreak of War (pp. 9-21)

    Of the sixteen million residents of the Philippine Islands at the outbreak of war approximately 15,800,000 were native born and of native stock. (See Table 1.) Chinese, Japanese, Americans were in that order next in Island population¹ but these and all other foreign groups made up less than three per cent of the total population.

    The Philippines was a country of orientals.² White faces were few and generally concentrated in large cities. The exceptions to such white urbanization were the small, isolated special interest communities which dotted the Islands where a Caucasian-staffed sugar central, a lumber mill, or a missionary...

  6. 3 Opening of the Bacolod Camp (pp. 22-34)

    It was June 6, 1942. Halfway down the steep mountain trail the human caravan of 21 white refugees and 35 brown skinned natives stopped to rest. On the padded shoulders of stripped-to-the-waist Filipino paquiaos (carriers of goods) was borne the personal luggage of the refugees. From bamboo poles slung from one native to another hung heavy cases of canned goods. From one pole was suspended a wicker clothes hamper, turned on its side. In this a three months old American baby slept upon a tiny mattress, the rhythmical jog of the paquiaos rocking the basket soothingly. Three blonde children rode...

  7. 4 Bacolod Camp Organization: The Pooling of Food Supplies (pp. 35-49)

    Hardly was the camp gate closed behind the first groups of internees when they initiated the internee organization and program which were adopted by later arrivals. In this chapter and the next two chapters are described the internee policy concerning the equalization of private property, and the camp plan of work, health, recreation, religion, and communication.

    The Bacolod North Elementary School was situated about a mile from Bacolod on a dirt road off the paved highway. It consisted of a nineteen-room classroom unit, a separate home economics laboratory and manual training shop, two outdoor toilets, and a storage shed.


  8. 5 Bacolod Camp Organization: Work and Health (pp. 50-60)

    By Japanese regulation internees were to keep the grounds and camp quarters clean. Otherwise there were no instructions regarding work. The organization of a labor program, the assignment of duties, and the enforcement of work rules were left to the internees themselves.

    Certain essential duties were immediately apparent: gardening, carpentry, garbage disposal, toilet sanitation, preparation of food, as well as care of grounds and quarters. Certain types of work were more desirable than others, but equitable distribution of labor assignments was sought by a system of rotation. Least pleasant of the men’s jobs were garbage disposal, sanitation, and cleaning of...

  9. 6 Bacolod Camp Organization: Recreation, Religion, and Communication (pp. 61-72)

    In general, the Japanese were apathetic toward internee recreation. On only one occasion did the Japanese sponsor an entertainment program—the showing of an American movie the like of which internees had not seen for many years, if at all.

    Internees sat upon the floor on the night of the movie and gazed at a sheet upon a classroom wall. First they saw Felix the Cat (predecessor of Mickey Mouse); then the Yale-Army football game of October, 1930; a Charlie Chaplin silent film; and a slow moving Laurel and Hardy episode of the period when women’s dresses were waisted below...

  10. 7 The Japanese (pp. 73-89)

    The first Bacolod commandant was a lieutenant in the regular Japanese Army who had entered the Islands from Japan with invading forces. He told internees that his ability to speak and understand English was the determining factor in his selection for the camp position.

    Lieutenant Nagasi was twenty-nine years old and had had five years of military training prior to the outbreak of war. In an officer training school he had chosen English when faced with the compulsion of learning German, English, or Italian. He spoke English well and used a wide vocabulary with little accent. He was tall, for...

  11. 8 Development of Artifacts in the Bacolod Camp (pp. 90-100)

    “The bulk of all cultures consists of what are, from the practical point of view, embroideries upon the fabric of existence.”¹ The overt expressions of culture are referred to as culture traits, which may be divided into (a) individual actions and (b) artifacts or objects.² The customary “embroideries upon the fabric of existence” were torn to cultural tatters within the Bacolod camp. Substitutional embroideries resulted in a patchwork of traits peculiar to the internment situation.

    Gillin³ notes that society may be studied at three levels: (1) the pattern level (cultural patterns which serve as plans or specifications for social activities...

  12. ILLUSTRATIONS (pp. None)
  13. 9 Adjustment of Individuals to the New Culture (pp. 101-124)

    Disruptive effects follow the adoption of any new culture traits. Linton says that a change in the technique connected with the satisfaction of basic biological needs (securing food, shelter, and survival) shakes the very fabric upon which the whole elaborate superstructure of the culture is reared.¹ Linton’s observation, based upon studies of primitive cultures, throws light upon the cultural aberrations which occurred within the Bacolod camp. Both the embroideries and the fabric of internees’ pre-war culture were altered by internment.

    In the Bacolod camp the adoption of new habits was often a painful and an upsetting experience. This was equally...

  14. 10 A Community under Stress (pp. 125-146)

    “Catastrophes are great educators of mankind,” wrote Sorokin¹ in his study of the calamitous effects of famine, pestilence, war, and revolution upon human mental life and social organization.

    Man has learned much about himself from both historical and contemporary observation of human action in time of stress. Calamity on a personal basis or on a nationwide scale is disturbing to the emotions and thoughts of those within its range of influence. Sorokin notes in detail how calamities affect the cognitive processes, the desires, and the volitions of those faced with them.² He notes the concentration of the cognitive processes (sensation...

  15. Bibliography (pp. 147-152)
  17. Index (pp. 157-160)