Studies in Music History

Studies in Music History: Essays for Oliver Strunk

EDITED BY HAROLD POWERS
Copyright Date: 1968
Pages: 548
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt183pzpc
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    Studies in Music History
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    eISBN: 978-1-4008-7918-2
    Subjects: Music
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  1. Front Matter (pp. i-vi)
  2. FOREWORD (pp. vii-viii)
    HAROLD POWERS

    In the late summer of 1964 a small group of Oliver Strunk’s former students and colleagues met in Cambridge and initiated discussions whose final outcome is this volume. The group constituted itself an Editorial Committee; in the end, the bulk of the work became the responsibility of Professor Powers, but all members of the committee have fully shared in the tasks of revision, each in his own areas of interest.

    No overall plan for the volume was formed, but there was one decision made at the outset: invitations to participate were sent only to former students of Professor Strunk, present...

  3. Table of Contents (pp. ix-2)
  4. SCHOLAR AND TEACHER (pp. 3-17)

    Oliver strunk’s remarkable intellectual and personal capacities are activated by a love of music and an insatiable curiosity about its phenomena. Even where music-historical inquisitiveness has necessarily taken control—as in his work in Byzantine music, now of many years’ standing—both the goal and the method are a connoisseur's knowledge of the music itself.

    Only too obviously, if we are ever to deal with this part of the music at all, we must begin by learning to read the early sources directly, just as they were read by the scribes who wrote them and the singers for whom they...

  5. FOUR CANONS (pp. 18-20)
    MILTON BABBITT
  6. I: MUSIC HISTORY
    • CURRENT HISTORIOGRAPHY AND MUSIC HISTORY (pp. 23-40)
      DONALD JAY GROUT

      Recent English and American studies in the philosophy of history,¹ in contrast to most earlier work in this field, are primarily analytical, reflecting current interest in the nature of scientific explanation. For the most part, they seem to have grown out of “the challenge posed by the existence of historical knowledge, with its imprecisions and particularity, to the conclusions reached about the nature of scientific method and objectivity won by an analysis of the logic of the natural sciences.² Although the discus sion is carried on most often with reference only to general history, much of it is clearly applicable...

  7. II: WORDS AND MUSIC IN CHRISTIAN LITURGY
    • THREE BYZANTINE ACCLAMATIONS (pp. 43-58)
      KENNETH LEVY

      Medieval liturgical chants preserved by one or two sources claim a larger measure of interest than their share of the manuscript tradition suggests. Some of them turn out to be oddities which, like theunicaof medieval secular monody and art-polyphony, owe their isolation among known sources to the narrowness of their original diffusion. Others reflect a more promising set of conditions, for the impulse to preserve a melody in notation diminished as it was simple or well known. Numbers of the most popular chants were as a matter of course excluded from manuscripts by economy-minded scribes, and on occasion...

    • ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE ALLELUIA MELISMA: A WESTERN TENDENCY IN WESTERN CHANT (pp. 59-72)
      LEO TREITLER

      It has been a central concern of the literature on the Gregorian Alleluia to pursue that genre from early Judeo-Christian beginnings to Byzantine prototypes, and thence through a uniquely long period of composition that was marked as well by major changes of style as by a steady growth of the repertory.

      In a study that is memorable for its display of critical sensitivity, Peter Wagner read meaning in those style changes for the growth of an indigenous Western—as opposed to an inherited Oriental—compositional tradition. Contrasting the melismas of the Alleluias with those of the Mass responsories and the...

    • THE TROPI AD SEQUENTIAM (pp. 73-82)
      PAUL EVANS

      Medieval church composers continued to seek new opportunities for their musical activity within the frame work of the Mass even after the Carolingian standardization of the liturgy brought the main period of Gregorian chant composition to a close. A particularly important outlet for new musical creation was the Alleluia of the Mass. Not only were a certain number of new Alleluia melodies composed during the later Middle Ages, but there were also various types of additions and interpolations which were developed in connection with the Alleluia and which were used to embellish its performance.

      These additions to the Alleluia form...

  8. III: SOURCES, PROBLEMS:: ARS NOVA AND RENAISSANCE
    • SOME DATES FOR BARTOLINO DA PADOVA (pp. 85-112)
      PIERLUIGI PETROBELLI

      Although Bartolino da Padova, after Francesco Landini and Nicolo da Perugia, is the composer from the Italian “Ars Nova” of whom the largest number of works have sur vived—thirty-eight madrigali and ballate—very little attention has been devoted to this musician. We have an edition in modern notation of all but one of his compositions,¹ since they occur all together in the Squarcialupi Codex² (even though this is an edition which has the limitations to be expected of a publication based on a single manuscript printed after the death of its editor, and without his final revision).³ Yet what...

    • CHURCH POLYPHONY APROPOS OF A NEW FRAGMENT AT FOLIGNO (pp. 113-126)
      NINO PIRROTTA

      As a veteran in the field of Ars Nova studies, and one who has spent most of his life among old documents and parch-ment leaves (or their photographic reproductions), I have occasionally complained to myself that I never had the chance to discover the tiniest fragment of Ars Nova music. It is unfair of me to do so, however. I may not possess the invisible feelers that alert and guide the born discoverer, but I have the good fortune of having many friends, and I have been gratified a number of times by the kindness and generosity shown by one...

    • [Illustrations] (pp. None)
    • THE MOTETS OF LIONEL POWER (pp. 127-136)
      CHARLES HAMM

      With certain composers of the fifteenth century it is possible and often desirable to distinguish between simple polyphonic settings of short liturgical works and more elaborate motets, but such a distinction is often difficult in the works of Lionel Power and is not at all necessary for the purposes of this paper. I am using the term “motet” here to designate settings of any liturgical texts other than sections of the ordinary of the Mass.

      Table I lists all motets attributed to Power in at least one manuscript.

      There are eighteen of these, four with conflicting attributions to Dunstable.

      A...

    • SOME AMBIGUITIES OF THE MENSURAL SYSTEM (pp. 137-160)
      ARTHUR MENDEL

      In his Editorial Notes toThe Works of John Dunstable,Manfred Bukofzer writes, “... editorial indications such as J. = J . . .fix the relative tempo between the sections.”¹ Since Bukofzer has explained earlier that “the original note values have been quartered in the transcription unless reduction by two is expressly stated,”² this means that he is suggesting that OH = CH in the original notation.

      Is this true? In the Gloria from the Pembroke manuscript, Bukofzer’s No. 2, is the 2/2 measure of the Qui tollis transcription twice as long as the 3/4 6/8 measure of the Et...

    • A SAMPLE PROBLEM OF MUSICA FICTA: WILLAERT’S PATER NOSTER (pp. 161-182)
      LEWIS LOCKWOOD

      An ironic equation seems to dictate that as modern editions in ever-increasing numbers continue to widen our view of medieval and Renaissance music, the problem of unspecified accidentals becomes more ramified and more acute, and the need for the further creation of systematic knowledge in this field becomes steadily more critical for historians, theorists, and performers alike. To say this is not to minimize in the slightest either the formidable difficulties of this subject—one of the frontier problems of musicology—or the many significant contributions that have been made to it by such scholars as Riemann, Wolf, Dèzes, Apel,...

    • ECHOES OF ADRIAN WILLAERT’S CHROMATIC “DUO” IN SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY COMPOSITIONS (pp. 183-238)
      EDWARD E. LOWINSKY

      Adrian willaert’s setting of Horace’s verses from the fifth epistle,Quid non ebrietas designat,known as the chro-matic “duo” (recently shown to have been conceived, and published about 1530, as a four-part composition)¹ is one of those rare works of art that provided generations of musicians with foodfor thought. When Hercole Bottrigari, in his Desiderio of 1594,² said that “this duo, which seemingly ends in a seventh, gave the musiciansof those times so much to think and say and write,” he did notforesee that the same work would still occupy musicians and thinkersin the generations ahead. Indeed, this small work...

  9. IV: ITALIAN OPERA
    • “VI SONO MOLT’ALTRE MEZZ’ARIE . . .” (pp. 241-258)
      STUART REINER

      In rome, in the year 1626, the first performance was given of a five-actjavola boscherecciacalledLa catena d’Adone.This seems to have been the first stage piece with music by Domenico Mazzocchi, and it is the only surviving opera attributed to him; yet, on the basis of this one work, his name has been given a considerable prominence in the history of opera. More precisely, Mazzocchi’s fame may be said to arise largely from a note that appears in the printed score of La catena d’Adone, appended to a list of airs and choruses belonging to that composition....

    • L’ERISMENA TRAVESTITA (pp. 259-324)
      HAROLD S. POWERS

      The “favola seconda” of Aurelio Aureli is entitledL’Erismenaafter its principal heroine; the “travestita” is added here as mere caprice. It alludes to the fact that the heroine appears in masculine dress, like so many of her counterparts in opera of the time, and also to the fact that the work itself has survived not only in the musical dress provided by Francesco Cavalli for its original Venetian production at the Teatro San Apollinare in 1655, but also in a greatly altered version from fifteen or more years later.

      Erismenahad a life in production of at least eighteen...

    • PLUS ÇA CHANGE Or, The Progress of Reform in Seventeenth-and Eighteenth-Century Opera as Illustrated in the Books of Three Operas (pp. 325-340)
      NATHANIEL BURT

      The Italian intellectual of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries took it for granted that what we call “opera” was a literary, rather than a musical form. Thisdramma per musicawas a modern version of the drama of the ancients. Music was either the recitative, designed solely to heighten the effect of the words, or the arietta, an interpolation designed to appeal to the crude public. This is the basis for that change in taste, beginning in the 1690’s, called the Arcadian Reform. It was a reform designed to subordinate music to words and to restore to drama its...

    • AGOSTINO STEFFANI’S HANNOVER OPERAS AND A REDISCOVERED CATALOGUE (pp. 341-355)
      PHILIP KEPPLER

      Some doubt still exists about the authorship of certain operas attributed to Agostino Steffani. There is no question about the operas written for and performed at the Munich court. The printed libretti for all these works name him specifically as the composer. The libretti for all the later operas, however, from 1689 on, lack this ascription.

      It is generally assumed that Steiiani wrote nine operas during his term as Kapellmeister at the court of Hannover. The autograph scores for six of these can now be identified. They are all in the Royal Music Library of the British Museum where they...

    • [Illustrations] (pp. None)
    • THE TRAVELS OF PARTENOPE (pp. 356-386)
      ROBERT FREEMAN

      According to a favorite theme of early eighteenth-century critics of Italian opera, viable musical drama had become impossible sometime during the seventeenth century, partly because librettists had allowed themselves to become subjugated to the whims of the singers, the composers, the set designers, and the impresarios.¹ Additional evidence that the dramatic ideas of late seventeenth-and early eighteenth-century librettists were normally given little consideration by their colleagues in the theater can be found in the correspondence of both Zeno and Metastasio,² as well as in the allusions of countless libretto prefaces to changes “... introduced, not out of disrespect for the...

  10. V: STUDIES OF THE GREAT COMPOSERS
    • HANDEL’S GIULIO CESARE IN EGITTO (pp. 389-404)
      J. MERRILL KNAPP

      Of all Handel’s operas,Giulio Cesare in Egitto,first performed in London on February 20, 1724, is probably the best known; it has probably also had the most performances since the composer’s death. There were thirteen performances the first season in February, March, and April 1724; ten in January and February, 1725; eleven in January, February, March 1730, and four in February, 1732.¹ Loewenberg² lists productions in Brunswick, Hamburg, and Vienna during Handel’s lifetime, and a planned one in Paris in 1724. Dr. Arnold put on a 1787 London performance under this title, but an examination of the libretto shows...

    • MUSICAL SKETCHES IN J. S. BACH’S CANTATA AUTOGRAPHS (pp. 405-428)
      ROBERT L. MARSHALL

      When one considers that present-day Bach research has subjected the available source material to an intensive philological scrutiny epitomized by a new edition of the complete works¹ and the establishment of a new chronology of the vocal compositions,² it seems particularly surprising that there has been no study of J. S. Bach’s musical sketches and drafts for over thirty years. Georg Schiinemann’s essay, “Bachs Verbesserungen und Entwurfe,”³ though managing to provide an idea of the nature of this material, is marred by generality, incorrect identifications, and inaccurate transcriptions (all perhaps inevitable in an initial attempt), making it evident that a...

    • [Illustrations] (pp. None)
    • HAYDN’S CREATION REVISITED: AN INTRODUCTORY ESSAY (pp. 429-442)
      VERNON GOTWALS

      Present-day performances ofThe Creationdo not always reveal the “wondrous unity of Haydn’s oratorios” claimed for them by Paul Henry Lang. Is this for want of the “positive, virtuoso singing and playing” demanded by the “plainly dramatic music [of] most 18th-century oratorios”? Has “romantic sanctimoniousness”¹ concealed the true nature of Haydn’s oratorio? Is it in fact a wonderfully whole work?

      A close study of the score uncovers many things hidden in the average performance. This essay makes bold to claimThe Creationas a living masterpiece of invention, of economy and restraint, of originality and inspiration. Three factors serve...

    • SOME MUSICAL JOKES IN MOZART’S LE NOZZE DI FIGARO (pp. 443-448)
      DAVID LEWIN

      Much has been written concerning wit in this wittiest of operas. I should like, in the sequel, to focus attention upon what seems to me one of its most characteristic features, namely, the quite extraordinary nature and extent of the involvement of textual connotation in the total fabric of that humor.

      One finds, to be sure, brilliant effects dependent simply upon what might be called “standard” techniques of operatic comedy.

      One would include in this category the use of thematic material with conventional connotations inappropriate to the immediate text, as at the entrance of the military band music in “Non...

    • “STÜRZET NIEDER, MILLIONEN” (pp. 449-458)
      ELLIOT FORBES

      In his book,Der junge Beethoven,¹ Ludwig Schiedermair calls attention to Beethoven’s two Imperial Cantatas and the prophecies to be found there of the three giants in vocal music to come:Fidelio, Missa Solemnis,and the Ninth Symphony. These two cantatas were written in 1790; the first,Cantata on the Death of Emperor Joseph II,in the spring following the death of the emperor on February 20, and the second,Cantata on the Elevation of Leopold II to the Imperial Dignity,at the time of the new emperor’s election and coronation, September 30 and October 9, respectively. It is not...

    • WAGNER’S MUSICAL SKETCHES FOR SIEGFRIEDS TOD (pp. 459-494)
      ROBERT BAILEY

      Wagner originally planned to make just one opera from the Nibelung material with which he had become familiar during his years in Dresden. In 1848, according to his usual habit, he wrote an elaborate prose scenario and then a complete libretto for a “grand heroic opera in three acts” (and a prologue) calledSiegfrieds Tod.¹ Later on, he expanded his material into a tremendous cycle for three days and a preliminary evening, andSiegfrieds Tod, after careful revision, assumed its position as the final opera inDer Ring des Nibelungen.The structure of the whole cycle thus parallels that of...

    • VERDI’S USE OF RECURRING THEMES (pp. 495-510)
      JOSEPH KERMAN

      In the last act ofOtello,at Otello’s entrancedi una porta segretaand again at his suicide, the orchestra plays music that was first heard at the high point of his love-duet with Desdemona in Act I. It is a famous dramatic stroke; many listeners, I believe, would have to search hard in their memory of Verdi’s operas or of anyone else’s to match its extraordinary feeling of summation, poignancy, and catharsis. One’s sense of this masterstroke can be clarified by study of the “interior context,” analyzing the musical and dramatic structure ofOtello; it can also be clarified...

  11. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE WRITINGS OF OLIVER STRUNK (pp. 511-518)
  12. INDEX (pp. 519-527)

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