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History of Antioch

History of Antioch

GLANVILLE DOWNEY
Copyright Date: 1961
Pages: 788
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt183q11z
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    History of Antioch
    Book Description:

    The book description for "History of Antioch" is currently unavailable.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-7773-7
    Subjects: Archaeology
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. i-vi)
  2. PREFACE (pp. vii-x)
  3. Table of Contents (pp. xi-xviii)
  4. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (pp. xix-2)
  5. INTRODUCTION (pp. 3-14)

    The great monograph of Carl Otfried Miiller (1797-1840),Antiquitates Antiochenae, was published at Gottingen in 1839, the year before he died of a fever in Greece at the age of fortythree.¹ It was no coincidence that this monograph was written by one of the leading classical philologists of the day, and that it appeared among the earliest of the special studies of ancient cities that the scholarship of the nineteenth century recognized as one of the most important bases upon which our knowledge of ancient and mediaeval history is to be built. Ancient cities, as the epitomes and custodians of...

  6. CHAPTER 1 THE PHYSICAL RESOURCES OF ANTIOCH COMMUNICATIONS, CLIMATE, WATER SUPPLY, NATURAL PRODUCTS (pp. 15-23)

    Antioch lies at the southwestern corner of the Amuk plain, at the point where the Orontes river, after flowing along the southern edge of the plain, cuts through the mountains to continue its journey to the sea. Because of its position, the city controls the network of roads, supplemented by the Orontes river, which from earliest times has made this part of Syria the route by which land traffic passes between Anatolia and the countries to the South, and between the Mediterranean and the upper Euphrates (Fig. 3).¹

    The site of Antioch is spectacular.² The mountains that follow the left...

  7. CHAPTER 2 THE SOURCES FOR THE HISTORY OF ANTIOCH (pp. 24-45)

    As has been pointed out in the Introduction, the sources for the history of Antioch in the Seleucid period are scanty, much scantier indeed than the material available for the histories of some other Hellenistic capitals; only one public inscription of the Seleucid period has been found at Antioch and Daphne. By contrast, parts of the history of the city during the Roman period are relatively well known, and for certain decades, and certain episodes, we possess special sources which provide abundant information. As a consequence of such differences, a history of Antioch must vary markedly in scale, and in...

  8. CHAPTER 3 ANTIOCH AND THE REGION IN PRE-MACEDONIAN TIMES (pp. 46-53)

    In the geography of northwestern Syria one of the principal features from the point of view of military and economic communication is the Amuk plain.¹ Through it must pass all land traffic between southern Anatolia and the coastal or western part of Syria and Palestine, and all traffic between the northern part of Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean Sea (Figs. 3, 4).² Fertile, well watered, and enjoying a favorable climate, the plain early attracted both nomadic and settled inhabitants, and in time it became densely inhabited and wealthy: it is today dotted with mounds that represent ancient settlements. Com mercial traffic...

  9. CHAPTER 4 THE FOUNDATION OF ANTIOCH AND THE REIGN OF SELEUCUS I (pp. 54-86)

    Antioch was one of the four “sister cities” of the Seleukis described by Strabo—Antioch, Seleucia Pieria, Apamea, and Laodicea-on-the-Sea. The establishment of these four cities (each seaport linked with an inland city) evidently represented a concerted plan, and archaeological evidence, cited below,¹ suggests that at least two of the cities, Antioch and Laodicea, either were laid out by the same architect or followed the same general specifications in their design. Seleucia Pieria originally was the Seleucid royal headquarters and capital city in northwestern Syria, but before long Antioch eclipsed it and the other cities of the tetrapolis.² When these...

  10. CHAPTER 5 FROM ANTIOCHUS I TO ANTIOCHUS IV, 281/0-163 B.C. (pp. 87-118)

    When Seleucus I died in 281/0 B.C., he was buried at Seleucia Pieria, and this choice of the place of burial indicates that Seleucia Pieria was still regarded as the capital at that time.¹ The increased activity of the mint of Antioch beginning with the reign of Antiochus I, matched by a decline in the importance of the mint of Seleucia Pieria, indicated that the capital was transferred from Seleucia Pieria to Antioch at this time.² One reason for the change may have been that Antioch was much safer from attack by sea than Seleucia Pieria.

    Antiochus I entertained at...

  11. CHAPTER 6 THE DECLINE OF THE SELEUCID DYNASTY (pp. 119-142)

    After the death of Antiochus IV the Seleucid realm was never again to play a part as a world power. Rome was now the dominant nation, and from this time the history of the Seleucid house is one of steady contraction and decline, ending in the occupation of Syria by Tigranes (83 B.C.) and finally in its conquest by the Romans (64 B.C.).

    The history of Antioch during this period is a depressing story in which we get only scattered glimpses of the Seleucid capital as a scene of intrigue, revolt, and warfare. Pretenders fought over the city and there...

  12. CHAPTER 7 ANTIOCH UNDER THE ROMAN REPUBLIC (pp. 143-162)

    The addition of Antioch to the territory controlled by Rome was a major epoch both in the history of the city and in the course of Roman colonial expansion. The curiosity of the Romans concerning the city that had now come under their control is exemplified by the visit that Cato the Younger made to it soon after Pompey's defeat of Tigranes.¹ Not only were the political consequences of the change great, but the economic developments that followed were of major importance.

    When Pompey found himself faced with the question of how he was to provide for the administration of...

  13. CHAPTER 8 ANTIOCH UNDER THE AUGUSTAN EMPIRE, 31 B.C.-A.D. 69 (pp. 163-201)

    The triumph of Octavian, the political heir of Julius Caesar, meant that Antioch, in common with the other cities of the East, was now free of the vicissitudes of political fortune which had beset it almost constantly since the power of the Seleucids began to decline. The dawn of the golden age founded by Octavian brought to the city, with the blessings of peace, a material prosperity that it was to enjoy for many years. ThePax Augustawas to unify the Empire as a whole and to reconcile the Greek East to Roman rule. Pompey and Caesar had, it...

  14. CHAPTER 9 FROM THE FLAVIAN DYNASTY TO THE DEATH OF COMMODUS, A.D. 69-192 (pp. 202-235)

    Nero’s death (9 June A.D. 68), which brought to an end the Julio-Claudian dynasty, was followed by a year in which the legions (having, as Tacitus says, discovered the fatal secret of the empire, namely that theprincepscould be nominated elsewhere than in Rome) created in succession four emperors, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. The first three were in turn overthrown, and Vespasian emerged as the founder of a new dynasty, that of the Flavians. In Vespasian’s rise to power, Antioch and the province of Syria played a major part, exemplifying for the first time the importance of the...

  15. CHAPTER 10 FROM THE DEATH OF COMMODUS TO THE ACCESSION OF DIOCLETIAN, A.D. 192-284 (pp. 236-271)

    The death of Commodus without an heir (31 December 192) created a situation not unlike that which followed the assassination of Nero. Two emperors, Pertinax and Didius Julianus, were proclaimed and assassinated in quick succession and a third aspirant, Pescennius Niger, appeared in Syria before the government passed effectively into the hands of Septimius Severus.

    Pertinax, so far as we know, had no connection with Antioch during his brief reign (1 January—28 March 193), though he had begun his military career in Syria and had been governor of the province ca. 180-182.¹ However, during the even briefer reign of...

  16. CHAPTER 11 THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY AT ANTIOCH, FROM APOSTOLIC TIMES TO A.D. 284 (pp. 272-316)

    In the time of Christ, there had developed in Antioch, as in other centers in which eastern and western cultures came into contact, a religious situation that was to make the city fertile ground for Christianity. Antioch had shared, with other places in which Hellenic religion and philosophy had flourished, the developments characteristic of the late Hellenistic age, in which the old religious cults and the philosophies were tending to become matters of individual belief, as people independently sought religious satisfaction for their own problems and aspirations.¹ In addition, Antioch, as a meeting point of the Greek and the Oriental...

  17. CHAPTER 12 ANTIOCH UNDER DIOCLETIAN (A.D. 284-305), CONSTANTINE THE GREAT (A.D. 306-337), AND CONSTANTIUS (A.D. 337-361) (pp. 317-379)

    Diocletian transformed the Roman Empire from a principate into an absolute monarchy. Recent history had shown the need for important changes. Order had to be restored, the civil administration reorganized, taxation and currency stabilized and reformed; the imperial throne and dynastic succession had to be safeguarded and the defense of the frontiers assured. The rise of Christianity posed a problem for which a solution must be found.¹

    It was to be expected that a city such as Antioch should be affected in many ways by the changes that now made themselves felt in every sphere of life in the Roman...

  18. CHAPTER 13 JULIAN THE PHILOSOPHER, A.D. 361-363 (pp. 380-397)

    Thanks to the abundance of the sources, notably Julian's own writings and the works of Libanius, the events of Julian’s reign at Antioch are known in some detail. The emperor’s residence in the city (18 July A. D. 362—5 March A. D. 363) formed the middle part of his reign, and in many ways the most important portion of his brief career.¹

    After the death of Constantius on 3 November A.D. 361, Julian proceeded to Constantinople, where he made a triumphal entry on 11 December. While spending the winter at the capital, he set in motion a purge of...

  19. CHAPTER 14 JOVIAN AND VALENS, A.D. 363-378 (pp. 398-413)

    On 27 june A.D. 363, the day following Julian's death, a Christian officer of the imperial guard named Jovian was chosen emperor. He was a compromise candidate, after Salutius Secundus, thepraefectus praetorio Orientis, had declined election.¹ The army at once began to retreat, and Jovian, anxious to terminate the Persian war in order to be free to make his own position secure, hastily concluded a disgraceful peace, in which unnecessary concessions were made to the Persians. While the army escorted the body of Julian to Tarsus for burial there, Jovian went to Antioch, where he arrived at some time...

  20. CHAPTER 15 THEODOSIUS I AND ARCADIUS, A.D. 379-408 (pp. 414-449)

    Theodosius’ reign (A.D. 379-395), marking out important new directions in the history of the Empire, brought corresponding changes and developments in the history of Antioch. Moreover, thanks to the volume of the preserved writings of Libanius and St. John Chrysostom, the reign of Theodosius I is one of the periods in the history of Antioch about which we are relatively well informed. The reigns of Theodosius and of his son Arcadius (A.D. 395-408) are best treated here as one, since only a few events that occurred at Antioch in Arcadius’ reign are known, and many of these had their beginnings...

  21. CHAPTER 16 THEODOSIUS II (A.D. 408-450) AND MARCIANUS (A.D. 450-457) (pp. 450-475)

    Theodosius II, when he became emperor on the death of Arcadius, was seven years old, and the government was conducted for some years by regents, first the praetorian prefect Anthemius, then by the emperor's older sister Pulcheria.¹ By contrast with the history of the reign of the first Theodosius, our extant sources tell us comparatively little of the secular history of Antioch at this period. On the other hand, the ecclesiastical history of the city is filled with events, notably those connected with the Nestorian controversy.

    The best known event in the life of the city at this time is...

  22. CHAPTER 17 LEO I (A.D. 457-474), LEO II (A.D. 474), AND ZENO (A.D. 474-491) (pp. 476-502)

    The principal event in the life of the city at this period was the severe earthquake, one of the most serious in the city’s history, which is apparently to be dated in mid-September A.D. 458.¹ The damage must have been considerable, though the sources vary somewhat in their statements as to its extent. In the latter part of the sixth century Evagrius,² whose account, drawn from Malalas,³ is the fullest preserved, states that the damage occurred primarily in the “new” quarter of the city, on the island, where “nearly all” the buildings were thrown down, and in the quarter called...

  23. CHAPTER 18 ANASTASIUS (A.D. 491-518), JUSTIN I (A.D. 518-527), AND JUSTINIAN (A.D. 527-565) (pp. 503-559)

    The literary sources for the history of Antioch during the reign of Anastasius are limited both in quantity and in the kind of information that they preserve, and we are told specifically about only a few episodes in the history of the city which happened to be of a somewhat sensational character, in keeping with both the rather explosive characteristics of the people of Antioch and the special problems created by the religious tensions of the period.

    We know, however, that this is not a complete or trustworthy picture of life in Antioch at this time, for the study of...

  24. CHAPTER 19 FROM JUSTIN II TO HERACLIUS, A.D. 565-641 (pp. 560-578)

    The reign of Justinian’s nephew Justin II opens what has been called “one of the most cheerless periods in Byzantine history,”¹ during which the state, weakened by Justinian’s ambitious undertakings, suffered from both political disorder and poverty. This epoch, which lasted until the accession of Heraclius in A.D. 610, is a singularly obscure one in the history of Antioch since the preserved sources are meager and have little to say about the city, which, as we have seen, had already begun to decline in size and importance.

    The sudden death of Justinian occurred, as has been said, just when it...

  25. HISTORICAL EXCURSUS (pp. 581-596)
  26. TOPOGRAPHICAL EXCURSUS (pp. 597-680)
  27. TRANSLATIONS OF DOCUMENTS (pp. 681-694)
  28. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS (pp. 697-712)
  29. BIBLIOGRAPHY (pp. 713-734)
  30. CHRONOLOGY (pp. 735-738)
  31. INDEX (pp. 739-752)