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Maudu’: A Way of Union with God OPEN ACCESS

Copyright Date: 2015
Published by: ANU Press
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    Book Description:

    This volume offers a fascinating case study of the Sayyid community of Cikoang in South Sulawesi – in particular, an examination of the role of the descendants of Sayyid Jalaluddin al-‘Aidid, a Hadhrami merchant-teacher of great authority and charisma who is said to have initially settled in Gowa in the 17th century. It is of particular interest because the migration of Sayydid Jalaluddin occurred well before the major Hadhrami diaspora to Southeast Asia in the mid-19th century. Of particular interest is the way Sayyid Jalaluddin and his descendants became integrated within the Makassar community. Sayyid Jalaluddin’s legacy to the Cikoang community is the Tarekat Bahr ul-Nur, whose mystic teachings expound the creation of the world from the ‘Nur Muhammad’. A consequence of this teaching is an enormous emphasis on the celebration of Maudu’ (Maulid or the Birth of the Prophet) as expressed in the local assertion: ‘My existence on this earth is for nothing but Maudu’.’ Every year this prompts the Cikoang community to hold one of the most elaborate and colourful Maulid celebrations in Indonesia. This study was originally submitted as an MA thesis at ANU in 1998, but soon became recognised as an important contribution to Hadhrami studies. Its author, M. Adlin Sila, has since gone on to complete his PhD at ANU, Being Muslim in Bima of Sumbawa, Indonesia: Practice, Politics and Cultural Diversity. This study of Bima and its religious history establishes him as a major researcher on the diverse traditions of Islam in eastern Indonesia.

    eISBN: 978-1-925022-71-1
    Subjects: Religion, Sociology
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  1. Foreword (pp. xv-xvi)

    This is a study that calls for greater attention from a wider scholarly audience. It was originally submitted as a Master of Arts thesis in Asian Studies at The Australian National University (ANU) in 1998. It offers a fascinating case study of the Sayyid community of Cikoang in South Sulawesi – in particular, an examination of the role of the descendants of Sayyid Jalaluddin al-’Aidid, a Hadhrami merchant-teacher of great authority and charisma who is said to have initially settled in Gowa in the 17th century.

    Whether Sayyid Jalaluddin came directly from Hadhramaut or by way of Aceh, when precisely...

    • Introduction (pp. 3-12)

      The focus of the first part of this study is to discuss in a broader context the origins of the kinship system and religious identity of Hadhrami Sayyid Arabs in akampungordesa(In. village) called Cikoang within the region of Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Their system of marriage, employing the principle ofkafa’ah(In.sekufuorsepadan, equality in partners) has made the Sayyid socially exclusive and at the same time rather different from other Indonesians. It lessens their flexibility (notably as concerns their womenfolk) in their assimilation with the local people. Although the Sayyid have lived in...

    • This study examines questions of the historical origins and religious distinctiveness of a community in Kampung Cikoang, Takalar Regency on the south coast in the southern part of South Sulawesi. Cikoang has a population of about 8,000 people, ranked in an elaborate social hierarchy. It is in most respects a typical village in a region where all people speak the Turatea dialect of Makassarese.¹

      The inhabitants of Kampung Cikoang claim to be Sunni Muslims following Shafi’i jurisprudence and sharing a common historical tradition. Their distinctive religious practices are the celebration of Maudu’ or Maulid Nabi (Ar., In. the Birth of...

    • This chapter will demonstrate the utilisation oflontara’, the Bugis-Makassar manuscripts andcaritana turioloa(the ‘stories of the elders’) as historical sources. Both have been used by Indonesianists – Indonesian and non-Indonesian – with special reference to the history of the Islamisation of South Sulawesi in general and Cikoang in particular. In historical studies of South Sulawesi many observers have relied on the writtenlontara’ as their references. This may be due to the well-documented information available in them (Cense 1951), covering such matters as length of the reigns of kings of Makassar, dates of wars among Bugis kingdoms and...

    • In the preceding chapter we considered the stories of the coming of Sayyid Jalaluddin al’Aidid to Cikoang in the context of the advent of Islam in South Sulawesi, and of the Sayyid’s socio-religious integration with the local people of Makassar. This chapter discusses the impact Sayyid Jalaluddin and his descendants made on the social structure of Cikoang. Of essential concern is the extent to which the Sayyid and Makassar social institutions have developed hand in hand throughout history. Thus I shall consider the Sayyid community as culturally Makassarese, in most respects like other Makassar societies, without ignoring the notion of...

    • In this chapter I will examine certain current religious arguments over popular beliefs and practices of the Muslims of Cikoang. In Cikoang there are many scholars and teachers constituting religion as a definable sphere of knowledge and practice, with the people identifying themselves with one of two chief religious orientations. The first is that of the so-called ‘Cikoangese’ (Mak.tu Cikoang; In.orang Cikoang) consisting of the Sayyid and Jawi people, but practically grouped as one social unit through the relationships of Sayyid patrons and Jawi clients, with their similar long-standing socio-religious practices discussed in the previous chapter. They identify...

    • This chapter describes in detail the celebration of the festivals of Maudu’ and Pattumateang from the perspective of the traditionalist Muslims of Cikoang and explores elements of both to which the modernists raise their objections. While there is some participation in the ceremonies by the modernists, I discuss the extent to which the two groups differ in their performance. Each of the parties justifies its own practice with reference to the same sources, while remaining different in spirit and application.

      Maulid or Maulud (from the Arabic root meaning ‘birth’) is a holiday occurring on the 12th day of the month...

    • This study has contained two sections. In Part One, Chapters One to Three, we observed that the exclusiveness of the Sayyid community of Cikoang, South Sulawesi is directly derived from the interplay between religious and social constructions. The religious legitimacy of the Sayyid is based on their descent from Sayyid Jalaluddin al-’Aidid in the early 17th century. His origins trace back to the Prophet Muhammad. It is this principle of descent which justifies the religious authority of the Sayyid over the Jawi and other non-Sayyid Makassarese. Strictly speaking, it is broadly held that for anyone to discard the theological decisions...