Local Church, Global Church

Local Church, Global Church

Copyright Date: 2016
Pages: 352
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt19rmckz
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    Local Church, Global Church
    Book Description:

    This important volume investigates the many forms of Catholic activism in Latin America between the 1890s and 1962 (from the publication of the papal encyclical Rerum Novarum to the years just prior to the Second Vatican Council). It argues that this period saw a variety of lay and clerical responses to the social changes wrought by industrialization, political upheavals and mass movements, and increasing secularization. Spurred by these local developments as well as by initiatives from the Vatican, and galvanized by national projects of secular state-building, Catholic activists across Latin America developed new ways of organizing in order to effect social and political change within their communities.

    eISBN: 978-0-8132-2792-4
    Subjects: Religion
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments (pp. ix-x)
  4. INTRODUCTION Toward a New History of Catholic Activism in Latin America (pp. xi-xxx)
    Stephen J. C. Andes and Julia G. Young

    Habemus Papam(We have a pope!). The Latin phrase provided the much-anticipated announcement that the College of Cardinals had elected a new pontiff to guide the world’s 1.2 billion Catholics. As the announcement rang out from the central balcony of St. Peter’s Basilica on the night of March 13, 2013, the world watched. Who would it be? Another European? An Italian native? Perhaps the 115 cardinal electors had chosen to place hopes in a Vatican insider, one who knew where all the bodies were buried, so to speak, and so to right the teetering barque of St. Peter, which most...

  5. Part I Catholic Social Encyclicals across Borders
    • CHAPTER 1 Messages Sent, Messages Received? The Papacy and the Latin American Church at the Turn of the Twentieth Century (pp. 3-20)
      Lisa M. Edwards

      By the middle of the nineteenth century, the Catholic Church faced serious challenges from competing ideologies, including Protestantism, liberalism, Marxism, and anarchism. These new ideas and actors posed a real threat to the Catholic Church’s privileges and moral influence in Latin America. Throughout the region, these challenges often took the form of debates over freedom of religion, the role of religion in state educational systems, civil marriage, and secular cemeteries. They were exacerbated by the proliferation of secular, and sometimes even overtly anti-Catholic, political parties. As an institution, the church had to revise its previous strategy of either condemning or...

    • CHAPTER 2 Catholic Vanguards in Brazil (pp. 21-50)
      Dain Borges

      To understand the roots of lay Catholic activism in Brazil, it is helpful to look to the last years of the empire and the first decades of the republic. From 1870 to 1916, a variety of Catholic organizations built the repertory for dynamic Catholic revival and restoration, a repertory of new ideologies and new forms of lay social action that were just as “globalized” as they were simply Roman and “ultramontane.” During this period, the Brazilian church connected with Baltimore, Leiden, and Lourdes, as well as with Rome itself.

      Within the existing literature, two events at the end of this...

  6. Part II Martyrdom and Catholic Renewal in the Mexican Revolution
    • CHAPTER 3 Eucharistic Angels: Mexico’s Nocturnal Adoration and the Masculinization of Postrevolutionary Catholicism, 1910–1930 (pp. 53-90)
      Matthew Butler

      On October 9, 1924, Catholic lawyer Miguel Palomar y Vizcarra addressed Mexico City’s Eucharistic Congress on the topic of men and Holy Communion. Palomar’s underlying theme was the affinity between Eucharistic participation and Catholic militancy, yet he described this relationship in masculine language: the Eucharist, Palomar stated, was an “ESSENTIALLY VIRILE SACRAMENT,” an invigorating banquet of Christ’s flesh that should fortify Catholics in the struggle to reconquer Mexican society. The Eucharist was also constitutive of Catholic manhood: “I have not come here to tell you that men should take communion because they are men,” Palomar continued, “but that they must...

    • CHAPTER 4 Transnational Subaltern Voices: Sexual Violence, Anticlericalism, and the Mexican Revolution (pp. 91-116)
      Robert Curley

      In 1914 Francis Kelley was an immigrant living in Chicago, a city with a large immigrant population. Born on Prince Edward Island, Kelley studied for the priesthood in Quebec, and was ordained in Detroit, Michigan. He came to Chicago in 1905 and founded the Catholic Church Extension Society with the support of the local archbishop, James Quigley.¹ Father Kelley would serve as president of the Extension Society until his 1924 elevation as the second bishop of Oklahoma. The Extension Society was the official church office in charge of home mission, the effort to extend the church to areas where it...

    • CHAPTER 5 Secret Archives, Secret Societies: New Perspectives on Mexico’s Cristero Rebellion from the Vatican Secret Archives (pp. 117-128)
      Yves Solis

      Historians have used many archival sources to explore the vitriolic relationship between church and state in Mexico during the first few decades of the twentieth century (1910–1940). In 2006 the Vatican opened its Secret Archives (Archivio Segreto Vaticano, or ASV), which shed new light on the pontificate of Pius XI (1922–1939). Researchers were able to learn more about the internal logic of the Holy See, papal diplomacy, and the relationship between the Roman curia, apostolic nuncios, the apostolic delegates, and the Catholic hierarchy of diverse countries, including Mexico. Scholars have even been able to uncover covert conspiracies developing...

    • CHAPTER 6 The Transnational Life of Sofía del Valle: Family, Nation, and Catholic Internationalism in the Interwar Years (pp. 129-162)
      Stephen J. C. Andes

      From May 1934 to June 1937, Sofía del Valle traveled the length and breadth of the United States on a mission. Mexican Catholic officials had given del Valle two fundamental tasks. First, del Valle endeavored to sway American Catholic public opinion in favor of her coreligionists in Mexico, to convince American Catholics that their brothers and sisters to the south were suffering a kind of modern-day martyrdom, mercilessly persecuted by a faction of anticlerical leaders who had risen to power in the wake of the 1910 revolution.¹ Second, del Valle’s mission was to raise as much money as possible for...

  7. Part III Fighting for the Soul of the University
    • CHAPTER 7 A “Third Way” in Christ: The Project of the Corporation of Mexican Students (CEM) in Cold War Mexico (pp. 165-184)
      Jaime M. Pensado

      The 1950s saw the rise of a new generation of leftist, conservative, and Catholic students in Latin America that began calling for a unique form of hemispheric solidarity. Their efforts reflected concerns about momentous contemporary events that had a profound impact at their universities, like the anticolonial war in Algeria, the rise of military dictatorships in Guatemala, and the “ iron fist” following the Hungarian insurrection. But these students also harkened back to the “arielista” language that characterized the first two decades of the twentieth century.¹ Asserting their ideological positions during the incipient cold war, they participated throughout the 1950s...

    • CHAPTER 8 Catholic Campuses, Secularizing Struggles: Student Activism and Catholic Universities in Brazil, 1950–1968 (pp. 185-204)
      Colin M. Snider

      When university students in Brazil’s Catholic University Youth (Juventude Universitária Católica, or JUC) movement tried to define their mission in 1956, they proclaimed that, while social issues were important, the organization’s focus would continue to be “evangelization,” even while also addressing social inequalities. These efforts at evangelization alongside social reform among university youth in Brazil in the late 1950s and early 1960s preceded similar official changes in the Catholic Church with Vatican II (1962–1965) and the Bishops’ Conference in Medellín in 1968. By the end of 1966, Catholic activism faced a very different context. The church abolished the JUC...

  8. Part IV Development or Liberation?
    • CHAPTER 9 The Antigonish Movement of Canada and Latin America: Catholic Cooperatives, Christian Communities, and Transnational Development in the Great Depression and the Cold War (pp. 207-244)
      Catherine C. LeGrand

      Throughout Latin America during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Catholics drew inspiration from political and social movements, as well as philosophical inquiries, from the rest of the Catholic world. Latin American Catholic activists sought to implement these foreign practices while, at the same time, adapting them and improvising changes that would make more sense in the local context. One of the most successful examples of this transnational interchange and adaptation occurred between Latin American Catholic activists and a little known but highly influential social movement in the Catholic Scots-Irish region of eastern Nova Scotia.

      Initiated by priest-professors associated...

    • CHAPTER 10 Popular Cultural Action, Catholic Transnationalism, and Development in Colombia before Vatican II (pp. 245-274)
      Mary Roldán

      This chapter examines the history and development of Popular Cultural Action (Acción Cultural Popular, or ACPO), the multipronged project of Christian revitalization, local empowerment, and communitybased development whose radio education network, Radio Sutatenza, founded by a Colombian parish priest in 1947 to address rural adult illiteracy, became Latin America’s first Catholic radio network and the model for media-based rural education and community development programs in twenty-four countries throughout Latin America, Asia, and Africa. In nearly a half century of existence, ACPO published and distributed more than six millioncartillas(illustrated instructional manuals) for its five-point “Fundamental Integral Education” (EFI) program,...

    • CHAPTER 11 The Maya Catholic Cooperative Spirit of Capitalism in Guatemala: Civil-Religious Collaborations, 1943–1966 (pp. 275-304)
      Susan Fitzpatrick-Behrens

      This chapter explores the development of a Maya cooperative movement in Guatemala from the 1940s through the 1960s. The cooperative movement had powerful economic effects in the country. It enabled Mayas to enter the global market, to bypass ladino intermediaries, and to access new land. These changes contributed to an economic transformation with powerful political implications. Maya cooperative leaders gained knowledge and training that facilitated broader organizing. In 1975 New York Times journalist Alan Riding described the “Indian cooperative movement” as the “first authentic rural movement in Guatemala’s history, so far involving about 20 percent of the 3.5 million Indian...

  9. FINAL REFLECTIONS Historicizing Catholic Activism in Latin America (pp. 305-310)
    Stephen J. C. Andes and Julia G. Young

    A flawed teleology exists in the historiography of Catholic activism in Latin America. In this narrative the Catholic Church before the Second Vatican Council was conservative, preservationist, concerned with its institutional interests as opposed to the plight of the poor, and fundamentally antimodern. It was a church in captivity, chained by its own elite-centered interests, ignorant of its call to shepherd the People of God. The history of the church, in essence, was progressing from captivity to liberation: the Second Vatican Council and its Latin American interpretation, the Conference of Latin American Bishops at Medellín in 1968 was the turning...

  10. Bibliography (pp. 311-338)
  11. Contributors (pp. 339-340)
  12. Index (pp. 341-353)
  13. Back Matter (pp. 354-354)


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