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Multiculturalism and Integration

Multiculturalism and Integration: Canadian and Irish Experiences

Vera Regan
Isabelle Lemée
Maeve Conrick
Copyright Date: 2010
Pages: 290
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1ch782p
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  • Book Info
    Multiculturalism and Integration
    Book Description:

    Multiculturalism and Integrationprovides new insights into the important issues of diversity, reasonable accommodation and identity construction in multicultural societies by examining the experiences of Canada and Ireland. While these two societies share many historical and cultural links, their differences help reveal the range of possible approaches to these important issues.

    Multicultural and multilingual diversity in contemporary Ireland are fairly recent phenomena, whereas Canada's policies and practices addressing cultural and linguistic diversity are several decades old. This basic difference has influenced their laws, language policies, education systems, cultural creations, and national identities as they have worked to accommodate multiculturalism.

    The volume brings together an international group of scholars working in a variety of fields including politics, law, sociolinguistics, literature, philosophy, and history. Their interdisciplinary approach addresses the complex factors influencing integration and multiculturalism, painting detailed and accurate portraits of these issues in Canada and Ireland.

    eISBN: 978-0-7766-1933-0
    Subjects: Sociology
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. [i]-[iii])
  2. Table of Contents (pp. [iv]-[v])
  3. Introduction: Multiculturalism and Integration (pp. 1-10)
    MAEVE CONRICK and VERA REGAN

    The thirteen essays collected inMulticulturalism and Integration: Canadian and Irish Experiencesoffer new insights into issues of diversity, integration and identity that are important in all multicultural societies. The essays were developed from contributions to the 2008 fourteenth biennial international conference of the Association for Canadian Studies in Ireland. The issues raised are of central concern in many international contexts, where societies are coming to grips with accommodating cultural diversity within a civic identity. Multicultural and multilingual diversity are relatively recent phenomena in contemporary Ireland, whereas Canada’s policies and practices addressing cultural and linguistic diversity are several decades old...

  4. Part I: Multiculturalism, Integration and Linguistic Diversity:: Canadian and Irish Models and Experiences
    • Chapter I Immigration, langue et diversité ethnoculturelle en Ontario (pp. 13-42)
      LINDA CARDINAL, NATHALIE PLANTE and ANIK SAUVÉ

      En 2006, Statistique Canada soulignait que la population ontarienne ayant une langue maternelle autre que le français et l’anglais était de plus en plus nombreuse. Alors qu’en 2001, l’Ontario comprend 2 797 555 personnes¹, en 2006, ce nombre augmente à 3 276 685². C’est près de 500 000 personnes de plus qui déclarent une langue autre que le français et l’anglais. Par contre, ces dernières ne maintiennent pas toutes leur langue maternelle comme langue le plus souvent parlée à la maison. En 2006, 1 934 233 personnes ont une langue d’usage à la maison autre que l’anglais ou le français³....

    • Chapter II Diachronic and Synchronic Perspectives on the French Language in Canada: Multilingualism, Language Contact, Norms and Usage (pp. 43-66)
      MAEVE CONRICK and VERA REGAN

      This chapter addresses a range of issues, several of which could be treated individually at some length. The focus of the chapter is, therefore, on a selection of issues that are of specific linguistic interest, linguistic diversity and homogenization in France and in New France, the current status and position of the French language in Canada, attitudes to the French language and issues of norm from a sociolinguistic perspective and Canada as a multilingual society and language contact: change, borrowing, code-switching.¹ The chapter as a whole aims to elucidate questions, some of which have been a source of interest for...

    • Chapter III Immersion Education in Ireland and Canada: L2 Immersion Adolescents in L1 Anglophone Settings (pp. 67-82)
      CAITRÍONA NÍ CHASAIDE and VERA REGAN

      Immersion education in both the Republic of Ireland and Canada in the 21stcentury entails education through indigenous but minority languages within the context of dominant anglophone cultures. “Immersion education” is a broad term used to describe various educational approaches. In Canada the term describes education in which at least 50 percent of the curriculum is delivered through the medium of a language other than that normally spoken by students (Genesee 1999). In Ireland the term describes education where all subjects other than English are taught through Irish. In both Canada and Ireland, English is the dominant language of the...

    • Chapter IV The Linguistic Impact of Target-Language Contact on the Speech of Irish and Canadian Learners of French L2 (pp. 83-94)
      ISABELLE LEMÉE

      The aims of the present study are to investigate the social aspects of French language acquisition by both Irish and Canadian learners, but also to illuminate some differences and similarities surrounding the acquisition of French in the study abroad and immersion learning contexts. Finally, I would like to identify precisely how native speaker contact may be an important missing link in the immersion learner’s acquisition of French.

      The study is based on a large-scale comparative analysis that draws on a number of databases of anglophone L2 learners of French in three contexts of acquisition, namely immersion learners in Canada (Mougeon,...

  5. Part II: Multiculturalism and Identity:: Cultural Representations
    • Chapter V Robert Lepage’s Lipsynch: Staging the Multicultural Experience (pp. 97-114)
      JANE KOUSTAS

      In his foreword toLipsynch, his most recent production, Quebec creator, director and writer Robert Lepage notes,

      We often confuse voice, speech and language, but those are indeed three very distinct and totally different things.Lipsynchis about the specific signification of all three and their interaction in modern human expression … The voice is an internal machine that finds its ultimate expression outside of the body, but in order to examine it and try to understand it properly one needs to pull away from the visual stimuli for a while and go where the voice is “seated”.¹

      Lepage’s emphasis...

    • Chapter VI Le cosmopolitisme littéraire ou la multivoix de l’écriture actuelle québécoise (pp. 115-130)
      LUCIE LEQUIN

      À l’heure de la mondialisation faut-il encore protéger les frontières des littératures dites nationales ? L’étranger qui arrive au Canada peut-il s’intégrer sans disparaître ? De même, l’habitant de vieille souche peut-il faciliter l’intégration de l’étranger sans lui-même disparaître ? Comment réconcilier l’idée de multiculture et celle de l’intégration ? La cohabitation des cultures recourt-elle à l’esprit de clocher, ou peut-elle vraiment installer une diversité transnationale dynamique et féconde ? Bref, à l’aube du vingt-et-unième siècle, comment parler du cosmopolitisme bien intentionné, mais encore si incertain ? Que dit la littérature du débat sur le multiculturalisme, l’intégration, la diversité ou...

    • Chapter VII Représentations du multiculturalisme dans l’œuvre romanesque de Francine Noël (pp. 131-150)
      ANNE-CLAIRE NASH

      L’œuvre romanesque de Francine Noël se compose entre autres d’une trilogie :Maryse, Myriam première, La Conjuration des bâtardset d’un quatrième ouvrage :Babel, prise deux, ou nous avons tous découvert l’Amérique¹. Tous témoignent d’un regard aiguisé sur la société. La durée diégétique des quatre ouvrages réunis s’échelonne sur plus de trente ans, de 1968 jusqu’à l’an 2000 et c’est donc tout naturellement qu’ils traduisent l’évolution de cette société vers une plus grande diversité culturelle².

      Mais quelle vision l’œuvre de Noël offre-t-elle au juste de cette architecture sociale complexe et mouvante ? L’intégration est-elle conçue comme respectant les particularismes...

    • Chapter VIII Narrer les marginaux : La rivière sans repos de Gabrielle Roy, trois mondes en conflit ou les Inuit face à la culture des Blancs (pp. 151-160)
      OLAYA GONZÁLEZ DOPAZO

      Notre point de départ n’est autre que l’incipit deLa détresse et l’enchantement, l’autobiographie de Gabrielle Roy. Elle a voulu qu’il soit une question qui reste sans réponse : « Quand donc ai-je pris conscience pour la première fois que j’étais, dans mon pays, d’une espèce destinée à être traitée en inférieure ? », et quelques lignes plus bas elle continue : « Winnipeg, la capitale, … jamais ne nous reçut tout à fait autrement qu’en étrangères » (1984 : 11). La question évoque une douleur personnelle, mais aussi collective, celle d’elle-même et de sa mère en tant que francophones...

  6. Part III: Multiculturalism, Integration and Identity:: The Irish-Canadian Experience
    • Chapter IX Moving to Canada: A Contemporary Irish-Canadian Perspective (pp. 163-176)
      PÁDRAIG Ó GORMAILE

      In the complex experience of moving from one part of the world to another, including Canada, what happens to culture, religion and language?¹ What do individuals sound like after the move? Much has been written about the origins and patterns of historical emigration, but it is interesting to examine the manner in which recent immigrants redefine their identity in a country where they were not born and in which they are identified as having come from elsewhere.

      The experience of settling in Canada can be examined in the work of the established, contemporary Irish-Canadian writer Pádraig Ó Siadhail (born in...

    • Chapter X From Assimilation to Diversity: Ethnic Identity in Irish-Canadian Literature (pp. 177-192)
      KATRIN URSCHEL

      For the past two centuries, the Irish have formed one of the largest ethnic groups in Canada. In the 2001 census, almost 13 percent of Canadians claimed Irish ancestry (Statistics Canada). Over the course of this long period, Irish-Canadian writing has often been a direct reflection of the contemporary cultural discourse. Irish-Canadian literature has, on the one hand, been formative in the creation of a national aesthetic, creating and responding to the pressure to assimilate. On the other hand, it has reacted to the multiculturalist urge to diversify, broadening the spectrum of genres and post-colonial voices, and moving away from...

    • Chapter XI Writing “Irish” in Pre-Confederation Canada: The Vernacular Voices of James McCaroll (pp. 193-214)
      MICHAEL PETERMAN

      If Canadians today think back to the decade before Confederation, they do so with precious little interest or curiosity. Yet, it was a complicated and fiery prelude to that period of developing Canadian nationhood, a vexed and contradictory era, marked by religious pressures, shifting political alliances, much tentativeness and a climate of financial uncertainty. Powerful national, religious and ethnic agendas were at work before the gaze of an anxious and sometimes violent public. If, for instance, one were Irish-born and living in Canada, one’s position on the possibility of “confederation” depended upon many factors—whether one was Catholic or Protestant,...

  7. Part IV: Multiculturalism, Integration and Diversity
    • Chapter XII Reconciling Conceptual and Terminological Issues in Legal Texts: The Canadian Model (pp. 217-226)
      DIANA YANKOVA

      Within plurilegal and plurilingual legislative contexts, statutes should convey the same meaning to all citizens and should be construed by judges in a way comprehensible to all parties concerned. In jurisdictions where two or more legal traditions are merged, quite often expressed in more than one legal language, it is necessary for laws to be drafted, implemented and interpreted in accord with these different legal traditions and languages. Except for situations where one legal tradition is articulated in one language, there are a number of instances where bijuralism and/or multilingualism are operative: a few cases in point are the legal...

    • Chapter XIII Moving to Canada: Chinese-Canadian Perspectives (pp. 227-242)
      AL VALLEAU

      The large Cantonese community in Canada and, in particular, in British Columbia can trace its origin back to the 1858 gold rush on the Fraser River and the beginning of the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) in 1881. Yet, these events do not in anyway prepare anyone for a full understanding of the experience of the Chinese community in Canada or explain why it was not until 1979 that the first anthology of Chinese- and Japanese-Canadian writing,Inalienable Rice, was published. The truth about the community is buried in the same way the truth about the lives of...

  8. Bibliography (pp. 243-266)
  9. Author Biographies (pp. 267-274)
  10. Index (pp. 275-283)