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Salvage Excavations at Tel Moza

Salvage Excavations at Tel Moza: The Bronze and Iron Age Settlements and Later Occupations

Zvi Greenhut
Alon De Groot
Volume: 39
Copyright Date: 2009
Pages: 363
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    Salvage Excavations at Tel Moza
    Book Description:

    Salvage Excavations at Tel Moza - The Bronze and Iron Age Settlements and Later Occupations.

    eISBN: 978-965-406-577-1
    Subjects: Archaeology
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. i-ii)
  2. Table of Contents (pp. iii-iv)
  3. Abbreviations (pp. v-v)
  4. Foreword (pp. vi-vii)

    The salvage excavations at Tel Moza, on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) and financed by the Public Works Department, were conducted over the course of three seasons in advance of the relocation of the Jerusalem–Tel Aviv Highway No. 1, which stood to destroy all the antiquities along the prospective route (see Chapter 2).

    The first excavation season during August–December 1993 (Permit No. A-2041/1993) uncovered an area of c . 1.5 dunams, which was divided into four excavation areas (A–D; see Fig. 2.1). The excavation was shallow (1.0–1.5 m) and bedrock was reached in some...

  5. Chapter 1 Introduction (pp. 1-7)
    Zvi Greenhut and Eldad Barzilay

    Tel Moẓa is located in the Judean Hillsc. 5 km west of Jerusalem (map ref. 16550–80/13345–65), on the southern slope of the spur where the modern town of Mevasseret Ẓiyyon (Mevasseret Yerushalayim) stands today (Figs. 1.1, 1.2). The Jerusalem–Tel Aviv highway and Naḥal Soreq pass to the south and east of the site. Moẓa ‘Illit lies south of the highway, and the Ramat Moẓa neighborhood, to its east. The site is 600 m above sea level and there are two springs, Upper and Lower ‘En Moẓa, in its immediate vicinity. The archaeological site extends over an...

  6. Chapter 2 The Excavations: Stratigraphy and Architecture (pp. 9-60)
    Zvi Greenhut

    The excavation area was first delimited in 1993 by the planned course of the new road (see p. vi). Within this framework, excavation squares of 5 × 5 m were opened according to a general excavation grid divided into four different areas (A–D; Fig. 2.1) separated by the lines of the agricultural terraces that cross the site. in most cases, the balks were retained to serve as a control and for stratigraphic examination. The excavation in 1993 reached a depth of 1.0 to 1.5 m and was excavated from the surface level to the Iron II strata.¹

    Following the...

  7. [Illustrations] (pp. None)
  8. Chapter 3 The Pottery (pp. 61-114)
    Zvi Greenhut and Alon De Groot

    The diagnostic pottery vessels and sherds found at Moẓa are arranged chronologically according to period and stratum, from early to late. The assemblages from the Early and Late Bronze Ages, as well as the Byzantine, Early Islamic and Ottoman periods, are presented typologically. The material from Middle Bronze Age IIA and Iron Age IIA and IIB is presented in the pottery figures according to selected loci, reflecting the exact and full content of each locus as it was discovered, thus enabling the reader to grasp the nature of each stratum on the basis of its finds. The discussion within the...

  9. Chapter 4 The Iron Age Clay Figurines and a Possible Scale Weight (pp. 115-123)
    Marie Petersson-solimany and Raz Kletter

    Many scholars have discussed the possible magical or religious significance of the anthropomorphic and zoomorphic clay figurines common in Cisjordan during Iron II (Kenyon 1974:142; Engle 1979; Fowler 1985; Holladay 1987; Dever 1990:119–166; Wenning 1991; Binger 1997; Wiggins 1998; Hadley 2000). We present here in detail a new assemblage of 60 figurines found in the excavations at Moẓa, west of Jerusalem.¹

    The figurines recovered in the excavations at Moẓa are all fragmentary (Figs. 4.1– 4.3). This is not surprising, as complete figurines are very rare from excavated strata. Figurines are more often found in tombs or pits, where they...

  10. Chapter 5 Glyptics, Impressed and Incised Sherds, and Engraved Inscriptions (pp. 125-147)
    Baruch Brandl, Zvi Greenhut and Daniel Vainstub

    The 62 artifacts presented here are arranged chronologically within each category. The discussion of each artifact includes its dimensions, as well as the material, state of preservation and quality of craftsmanship, followed by a general description including typology and dating.

    This stamp seal (Figs. 5.1–5.3) was discovered during the 1993 excavation season at Moẓa. As part of its treatment in this report, an attempt is made to present an extensive list of parallels from excavated sites as a basis for future studies. Parallels from collections are cited only when they are essential to the discussion.¹

    Material: Bituminous limestone (Yuval...

  11. Chapter 6 The Egyptian-Blue Scepter Head (pp. 149-155)
    Zvi Greenhut

    A scepter head made of cuprorivaite or Egyptian blue—a synthetic material composed of silicate, calcium and copper (see Segal, below) first used in the third millennium BCE (Tite, Bimson and Cowell 1992)—was found in an Iron II context, on the floor of Building 500 (Area B, L500, B30642; Fig. 6.1).¹

    The scepter head, measuring 8.5 cm in height and 3 cm in diameter, is divided into three elements: (1) the upper part, shaped like a pomegranate topped by a bud with eight small leaflets; (2) the middle part, comprising three decorative rings; and (3) the bottom part, a...

  12. Chapter 7 The Loom Weights (pp. 157-161)
    Orit Shamir

    Sixteen fired clay balls, interpreted as loom weights (Table 7.1), and one spindle whorl were found in Strata V–IV at Moẓa, dating to Iron Age II.¹

    Loom weights, which served to weight the warp threads in the warp-weighted loom (Hoffmann 1974; Broudy 1979:23–37; Sheffer 1981; Shamir 1994b:37–42), were usually made of fired or unfired clay, sometimes of stone, and appear in a variety of shapes. Evidence for the use of the warp-weighted loom is found as early as the Neolithic period (e.g., Çatal Hüyük; Barber 1991:129–132). In Israel, the earliest evidence dates to Middle Bronze Age...

  13. Chapter 8 The Groundstone Assemblage (pp. 163-189)
    Anna Eirikh-Rose

    Since prehistoric times, groundstone tools have often formed an essential part of the household assemblage. Careful study of the stone objects from Moẓa and their archaeological and cultural context can contribute valuable additional information to our knowledge of everyday life and the manner of food production at the site of Moẓa.

    The description of the tools follows the classification of prehistoric groundstone tools compiled by Wright (1992a; 1992b) with some modifications. Tools that do not fall within major categories will be classified as ‘varia’. It is necessary to use a prehistoric type list as the fundamental data base, since no...

  14. Chapter 9 The Small Finds (pp. 191-195)
    Zvi Greenhut

    This chapter presents a number of miscellaneous small finds, including a stone stand, bone and ivory objects, and a few small metal artifacts.

    Area B, L495, B30979; Fig. 9.1:1

    L 5 cm, W 5 cm, H 5 cm

    Description.A square (cultic?) stand or altar carved of pale red limestone. The stand is broken and only one leg is preserved. The top of the stand is flat and the sides descend with a slight inward inclination. The original size of the stand is unknown.

    Typology. The lower part, including the one remaining leg, is very similar to the bases of...

  15. Chapter 10 The Archaeozoological Remains (pp. 197-207)
    Moshe Sade

    The archaeozoological remains presented here originated in only two of the excavation areas at Moẓa, Areas A and B, and represent a number of periods: Early Bronze Age IA, Middle Bronze Age IIB, Iron Age I–II and the Hellenistic period. The largest faunal assemblage was retrieved from the Iron II Strata V–IV (eighth–beginning of the sixth centuries BCE).¹

    Measurement of the bone material was conducted according to the criteria of Von den Driesch (1976). Identification of the bones was carried out following Schmid (1972). No diagnostic bones of sheep/goats that enabled a conclusive distinction between the two...

  16. Chapter 11 Radiocarbon Dating (pp. 209-213)
    Elisabetta Boaretto

    Radiocarbon dating was used to date two different areas at Tel Moẓa: Iron Age Strata VII and VI in the southern secondary area of Area B, and the Crusader water installation in Area F.¹

    During the 2002 season of salvage excavations at the site of Moẓa, six charcoal samples recovered from Strata VII and VI were submitted for radiocarbon dating to the Radiocarbon Laboratory at the Weizmann Institute of Science (Sharon et al. 2007).² Locus 2043 of Stratum VII is a burnt layer from which material attributed to Iron I/Iron II was recovered. Charcoal samples were also retrieved from L2083...

  17. Chapter 12 Tel Moẓa in Context (pp. 215-233)
    Zvi Greenhut and Alon De Groot

    Integration of the data recovered from the excavations yielded an understanding of the character and nature of the settlement in the various periods. It was also possible to determine the role the site played in a broader geographic and chronological context, primarily in the Iron Age.

    The finds from this period were discovered in the two secondary areas in Area B. They date to the beginning of EB I, close to the transition from the Chalcolithic period. This settlement phase was also discoveredc. 250 m to the south of our excavation, in the area excavated by Eisenberg (1993b) on...

  18. Appendix 1: Index of Loci and Walls (pp. 235-268)
  19. Appendix 2: Locus Trees (pp. 269-280)
  20. Appendix 3: Pottery Tables (pp. 281-355)
  21. Back Matter (pp. 356-358)