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Paneas I

Paneas I: The Roman to Early Islamic Periods. Excavations in Area A, B, E, F, and H

Vassilios Tzaferis
Shoshana Israeli
Volume: 37
Copyright Date: 2008
Pages: 196
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    Paneas I
    Book Description:

    Paneas – Volume I - The Roman to Early Islamic Periods. Excavations in Area A, B, E, F, and H.

    eISBN: 978-965-406-575-7
    Subjects: Archaeology
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. i-ii)
  2. Table of Contents (pp. iii-iii)
  3. Abbreviations (pp. iv-iv)
  4. Foreword (pp. v-viii)
    Vassilios Tzaferis

    On March 6, 1854, the French traveler and explorer F. De Saulcy visited Baniyas, also known as Paneas or Caesarea Philippi. He was deeply impressed by the small village, its “mild and inoffensive inhabitants,” magnificent trees and green orchards, and its sheikh, who was his host. He was also awed by the ancient ruins he saw scattered throughout the site. “The site of Baniyas,” he concluded, “promises valuable discoveries to any explorer who may have time for his operations.” In 1988, one hundred and thirty-four years after De Saulcy’s visit, fourteen students and three professors from America and three Israeli...

  5. Chapter 1 Introduction (pp. 1-14)
    Vassilios Tzaferis

    The history of Baniyas, from its beginnings in the Hellenistic period in the third century BCE up to modern times, was closely linked to the privileged geographical and topographical position upon which it was located. Situated on the low hills at the southern roots of the massive Mount Ḥermon on the one hand and on the northeastern boundaries of the Ḥula Valley on the other, it entertained both the exceptional strategic advantages of the mountain and the defects of the nearby swamps (Fig. 1.1). Yet, the northern dry fringes of the Ḥula Valley were always, as they are today, fructuous...

  6. Chapter 2 The Site: Stratigraphy and Architectural Remains (pp. 15-53)
    Vassilios Tzaferis

    The excavations of the Joint Expedition revealed fragmentary architectural remains that allow us to reconstruct some of the major buildings of the ancient city of Baniyas (Figs. 2.1; Plan 2.1). The stratigraphic sequence in the excavated areas begins in the first century CE and continues until the fifth century CE.

    Following a six-hundred-year lapse, the city revived in the eleventh century, flourished, and then shrank in the fifteenth century. The hiatus from the sixth century is certainly not indicative of the end of the city, but rather results from the limited area exposed.

    The stratigraphic sequence of the architectural remains...

  7. Chapter 3 Area B: The Roman and Byzantine Mosaics (pp. 55-60)
    Shoshana Israeli

    Four mosaic pavements were uncovered in Area B. One, dating to the first century CE, belongs to the Early Roman colonnaded building, while the other three embellished the fourth-century Byzantine basilica. Generally, the mosaics depict simple designs using plain, locally available stones in natural colors. The Byzantine mosaics are neither of a high quality nor of a specific style.

    In 1993, a mosaic pavement with a black and white geometric design (1.64 × 1.84 m; Fig. 3.1) was exposedin situ(Locus 10B33; see Plans 2.2, 2.3). The mosaic was discovered south of Wall 10BW12, below a Mamluk-period collapse. Although...

  8. Chapter 4 Area B: Stratigraphic Details and the Pottery from Strata I to IV (pp. 61-79)
    Shoshana Israeli

    Area B is located at the entrance to the Baniyas nature reserve (see Plan 1.1; Fig. 4.1). The excavation in this area was carried out between 1989 and 1994, and is one of two areas excavated during the first seasons of work at the site. Evidence was found in Area B of almost all of the settlement periods at the site. However, construction activity during the Byzantine period and the Middle Ages penetrated into the earlier strata and frequently destroyed substantial parts of them. During the first seasons the late strata were exposed and the pottery was analyzed according to...

  9. Chapter 5 Area B: The Glass Vessels (pp. 81-89)
    Yael Gorin-Rosen and Ruth E. Jackson-Tal

    The following report presents a selection of glass vessels found in Area B.¹ It includes most of the representative types from at least four periods: (1) The Early Roman period includes one cast bowl dated to the late first century BCE and the beginning of the first century CE (Fig. 5.1:1), two bowls, which are dated to the late first to the second centuries CE (Fig. 5.1: 2, 3) and a contemporary small bottle (Fig. 5.1:4). The early glass vessels belong to the colonnaded building. (2) The Late Roman–Byzantine period vessels comprise a smaller group and include one Late...

  10. Chapter 6 Area B: The Medieval Pottery (pp. 91-103)
    Miriam Avissar

    The majority of pottery vessels recovered from the disturbed upper layers of Area B can be assigned to the Crusader, Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. As only a small amount of pottery could be attributed to the Ottoman period, only characteristic vessel forms are presented here. Unfortunately, no uncontaminated assemblages could be discerned. The pottery is discussed typologically.

    These orange-brown clay bowls have a whitish slip inside that extends over the rim on the upper part of the outer wall, often forming irregular patches. Most of the bowls have a monochrome green glaze on the inside, varying in shade and quality....

  11. Chapter 7 Area F: Stratigraphic Analysis of the ‘Burnt’ Street of Shops and Its Pottery (pp. 105-127)
    Shoshana Israeli

    In Area F, two rows of rooms flanking a street oriented north–south were uncovered (Fig. 7.1, see Fig. 2.13; Plans 2.7, 7.1; Table 7.1). The western row of rooms, excavated first, yielded a considerable quantity of ceramics. These finds suggest the rooms were shops. Most of this material was unearthed within a one-halfmeter-thick burnt layer crushed above plaster floors. The vessels werein situ, either lying broken from collapsed shelves or fallen haphazardly on the floor, indicating that the conflagration that destroyed the building was rapid and unexpected. The fire is most evident in the western rooms. The burnt...

  12. Chapter 8 Area F: The Lamps from the Shops (pp. 129-139)
    Shoshana Israeli

    Thirty complete Byzantine lamps were found in the western rooms flanking the street of shops. These ‘Northern Type’ lamps (Sussman 1989) were discovered along with other ceramic serving and table wares, storage vessels (see Chapter 7), glass (Chapter 9), metal (Khamis 2008) and numerous datable coins (Berman and Bijovsky 2008).¹

    The lamps were uncovered in the burnt layer above the floor of Room 1 (Locus 8F8; see Table 7.1), and several were found embedded in the floor of Room 3 (Locus 8F14). The lamps are generally round or piriform. Some are decorated. Both types are further subdivided according to their...

  13. Chapter 9 Area F: The Glass Finds (pp. 141-154)
    Yael Gorin-Rosen and Ruth E. Jackson-Tal

    The glass finds from Area F were unearthed mainly in the burnt layers in the shops. The strong heat deformed few of the vessels. All the glass fragments from this area were conserved and restored. The assemblage consists of various bowls, beakers, bottles, small objects and windowpanes.¹

    Three fragments are dated to the Early Roman period, mainly to the first century CE (Fig. 9.1:1–3), and three other vessels (Fig. 9.1:4–6) probably date to the Roman period, chiefly the second– third centuries. The majority of the vessels date to the Late Roman–early Byzantine period (fourth–early fifth centuries...

  14. Chapter 10 Area E: Stratigraphic Details and the Pottery from the Apsed Building (pp. 155-172)
    Shoshana Israeli

    In 1991 a rectangular building on a north– south axis with an apse in its southern wall began to appear in the newly opened Area E (the seventh season of excavation; Plans 1.1, 10.1; Fig. 10.1a), located in the midst of Area D. The building was exposed in the eighth season (Plan 2.10c; Fig. 10.1a) and was excavated during the ninth and tenth seasons (Plan 2.10a, b; Fig. 10.1b). After the removal of some later walls (8EW1, 8EW2; Plan 10.1; Fig. 10.1b), an arched niche within the apse was uncovered (7EW158; Fig. 10.2).¹ A blocked opening in the northern wall...

  15. Chapter 11 Historical and Archaeological Summary (pp. 173-186)
    John F. Wilson and Vassilios Tzaferis

    The findings from our excavation are integrated here into an historical and archaeological summary of the fortunes of the site from the establishment of the Sanctuary of Pan in the late third/early second centuries BCE to modern times (Wilson 2004).

    The Sanctuary of Pan consists of a cave, a red-rock cliff, and springs. These three features first appear in the historical record as the ‘Paneion’ in Polybius’ account of the victory of the Seleucids over the Ptolemaic army inc. 200 BCE at Baniyas (Polybius,The Histories16.18–19). Perhaps the Ptolemies identified the cave and the springs with the...

  16. Back Matter (pp. 187-188)