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Biostratigraphic and Geological Significance of Planktonic Foraminifera

Biostratigraphic and Geological Significance of Planktonic Foraminifera OPEN ACCESS

Copyright Date: 2015
Edition: 2, Revised
Published by: UCL Press
Pages: 306
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    Biostratigraphic and Geological Significance of Planktonic Foraminifera
    Book Description:

    The role of fossil planktonic foraminifera as markers for biostratigraphical zonation and correlation underpins most drilling of marine sedimentary sequences and is key to hydrocarbon exploration. The first - and only - book to synthesize the whole biostratigraphic and geological usefulness of planktonic foraminifera,Biostratigraphic and Geological Significance of Planktonic Foraminiferaunifies existing biostratigraphic schemes and provides an improved correlation reflecting regional biogeographies. Renowned micropaleontologist Marcelle K. Boudagher-Fadel presents a comprehensive analysis of existing data on fossil planktonic foraminifera genera and their phylogenetic evolution in time and space. This important text, now in its Second Edition, is in considerable demand and is now being republished by UCL Press. Features include: New, updated version of a gold standard text widely regarded as an essential resource for anyone with an interest in planktonic foraminifera The first - and only - book to synthesize the whole biostratigraphic and geological usefulness of planktonic foraminifera by presenting all available biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental data for significant genera and species Provides the basis needed to understand the geological and biostratigraphic importance of planktonic foraminifera which are vital in hydrocarbon exploration and basin analysis Coverage includes presentation and discussion of rarely studied thin sections of planktonic foraminifera, allowing for new developments in dating planktonic foraminifera in carbonates and expand their usefulness in hydrocarbon exploration Unifies existing biostratigraphic schemes to provide an improved biostratigraphic correlation reflecting regional biogeographies

    eISBN: 978-1-910634-26-4
    Subjects: Geology, Paleontology, Environmental Science
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  1. Foraminifera are marine, free-living, amoeboid protozoa (in Greek, proto = first and zoa = animals). They are single-celled eukaryotes (organisms the cytoplasm of which is organized into a complex structure with internal membranes and contains a nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and Golgi bodies, see Fig. 1.1), and they exhibit animal-like (cf. plant-like) behaviour. Usually, they secrete an elaborate, solid carbonate skeleton (or test) that contains the bulk of the cell, but some forms accrete and cement tests made of sedimentary particles. The foraminiferal test is divided into a series of chambers, which increase in number during growth. In life, they exhibit...

  2. Living planktonic foraminifera show a significant diversity and are highly adaptable, both in their morphology and biology. They exhibit characteristic cytoplasmic pseudopodal features that stream nutrients into, and waste out of the main body of the test. Many planktonic species harbour photosynthesizing symbionts in the pseudopodal structures, while others merely sequester chloroplasts on a temporary basis. In their open ocean habitat, planktonic species have developed a number of mechanisms for coping with the difficulties of reproduction. In this section, we briefly review the nature of the planktonic foraminiferal cytoplasm and their mechanism for test growth, the nature of their symbionts,...

  3. The first foraminifera with hard parts appeared in the Cambrian. These were the Allogromida, which are unilocular, simple agglutinated forms. Textularida, the agglutinated foraminifera with a test of quartz, or other inorganic particles, stuck together by calcitic or organic cements, evolved from Allogromida late in the Cambrian. The members of the Textularida remained the dominant group in the early Paleozoic. However, the Rotaliida, with tests made of primarily secreted calcite or rarely aragonite, made their first appearance in the Triassic. These benthic forms (or the related Robertinida) gave rise to forms with a meroplanktonic mode of life (see Chapter 1...

  4. Although most Jurassic planktonic foraminifera became extinct toward the end of that period, the meroplanktonic conoglobigerinids persisted into the Early Cretaceous and gave rise to the favusellids in the Berriasian. In turn, the favusellids, an aragonitic group, led to the calcitic praehedbergellids in the Valanginian (Fig. 4.1). The praehedbergellids typify the holoplanktonic foraminiferal fauna of the Early Cretaceous and were the first geographically widespread Globigerinoidea. In the Barremian, the praehedbergellids gave rise to the planispiral schackoinids, and in the Late Aptian to the hedbergellids, from which the other trochospiral lineages, characteristic of the Late Cretaceous, developed. The Late Albian also...

  5. As seen in the previous chapter, the Cretaceous–Paleogene crisis wiped out over 95% of the Maastrichtian planktonic foraminifera. The Early Paleocene was a recovery period for planktonic foraminifera. As is seen during the recovery stage following other extinctions, the planktonic foraminifera that survived the K–P event were morphologically small, exhibiting the post-crisis, ecologically stressed “Lilliput effect” (characterized by a temporary, within-lineage, size decrease after an extinction event; Twitchett, 2006).

    Only three of the few survivor species (Hedbergella monmouthensis, H. holmdelensis, andGuembelitria cretacea) went on to provide the stock from which the subsequent Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera devolped. These...

  6. As seen in the previous chapter, the Paleogene–Neogene boundary was not such a significant event for planktonic foraminifera as the sharply defined Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Indeed, eight out nine families (see Fig. 6.1) and almost 73% of species survived the boundary into the Miocene. These Paleogene forms dominated the first 3 Ma of the Miocene in the Aquitanian, and it was not before the Burdigalian that the first stage of Neogene diversification occurred.

    In the Aquitanian, the small globular Globigerinidae that passed through the Paleogene– Neogene boundary thrived from the photic zones to the deeper waters of the tropics...