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Multiculturalism and Integration

Multiculturalism and Integration: A Harmonious Relationship OPEN ACCESS

Michael Clyne
James Jupp
Copyright Date: 2011
Published by: ANU Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt24h7j6
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  • Book Info
    Multiculturalism and Integration
    Book Description:

    Multiculturalism has been the official policy of all Australian governments (Commonwealth and State) since the 1970s. It has recently been criticised, both in Australia and elsewhere. Integration has been suggested as a better term and policy. Critics suggest it is a reversion to assimilation. However integration has not been rigorously defined and may simply be another form of multiculturalism, which the authors believe to have been vital in sustaining social harmony.

    eISBN: 978-1-921862-15-1
    Subjects: Sociology
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Table of Contents

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  1. Introduction (pp. xiii-xxiv)
    James Jupp and Michael Clyne

    It is often argued that Australian multiculturalism as a public policy has never been explained. This is quite untrue, but it remains true that changes of emphasis between governments of different persuasions have created a confusing impression. Different usages of the term in various European and North American democracies have added to this confusion. However, Australia has good claims, along with Canada, of having developed and implemented a coherent set of policies over a period of almost forty years. A range of public and private institutions has taken part in this process. What is still lacking is a widespread understanding...

  2. Graeme Hugo

    While the major lineaments of post-war immigrant settlement remain, there have been some small, but nevertheless significant, changes in settlement patterns since 2001. While there are a number of causes of these shifts, undoubtedly one has been the paradigmatic shift which has occurred in Australian immigration policy since the mid 1990s¹. It has involved a number of elements. Since 1996 Australia has had an increasing substantial skilled temporary labour migration program as well as large student and working holiday-maker migration programs². There has been an increase in the proportion of settlers each year who are ‘onshore’ migrants who are already...

  3. James Jupp

    A major problem in discussing multiculturalism rationally is that it means many different things to many different people in many different situations¹. This is quite normal for all terms ending in ‘ism’, which suggests some sort of ideological basis relevant to political and organisational outcomes, such as ‘socialism’. The difference is that socialism has been around for nearly two centuries, while multiculturalism was only coined forty years ago. Within a single generation states and individuals have moved from assimilative nationalism and open racism towards the concepts of human equality and cultural variety. Still, many are yet to adopt these novel...

  4. Michael Clyne

    As nearly a quarter of the Australian population were born in non-Englishs-peaking countries or are children of such people, multilingualism and multiculturalism are allied issues. In order to assess the role of language in integration and multiculturalism, we should begin by listing the main functions of language¹. Language is:

    the most important medium of human communication;

    a symbol of identity;

    an expression of culture;

    a medium of cognitive and conceptual development;

    an instrument of action (Language is, for instance, sufficient to perform acts such as promise, complaint, invitation, and reprimand).

    These functions are the arena in which the relationship between...

  5. Geoffrey Brahm Levey

    The mass migrations to the United States from the 1880s to 1920 inspired a wealth of influential work by sociologists, historians, and public intellectuals on the integration of people arriving in a new society from the corners of the globe. People such as Israel Zangwill, Randolph Bourne, Horace Kallen, Oscar Handlin, Will Herberg, John Higham, Nathan Glazer and Milton Gordon¹ helped frame the analysis of immigrant absorption in the United States and beyond. In contrast, political theorists have turned their attention to this subject only recently. There had long been debate over the status of national minorities, going back to...

  6. Andrew Markus

    It is a complex matter to unravel attitudes to multiculturalism and cultural diversity. Taking specific poll findings at face value can lead to misrepresentation, evidenced in the contending claims made from time to time concerning the level of support for multiculturalism.

    Representatives of ethnic communities, not surprisingly, will seek to stress poll findings that indicate high levels of support for cultural diversity. Thus in February 2008, Sam Afra, Chairman of the Ethnic Communities’ Council of Victoria, issued a press release to rebut findings of a local study released in February 2008 which indicated little support for government funding for cultural...

  7. Siew-Ean Khoo

    The demography discipline provides one of the most powerful indicators of integration of immigrants or ethnic groups in multicultural societies: intermarriage between people of different national origins or ethnic background. Marriage is an important demographic and life course event, usually signalling the start of family formation and childbearing. As with births and deaths, two other important demographic events, marriages are recorded with the registrar of births, deaths and marriages in countries that keep records of these vital events. These records are usually referred to as vital registration statistics and are one of the most important collections of demographic data for...

  8. Kim Kirsner

    Granted that fluency in the dominant language of a country is a necessary if not sufficient condition for integration, questions about the cost of fluency are pertinent. The aim of this chapter is to determine the amount of engagement required to achieve fluency in a second language.

    Measurement of second language skills depends critically on the test procedure, and the target problem. Many procedures involve de-contextualised tasks, and they therefore fail to capture the speaker’s fluency under natural language conditions. Other procedures rely on subjective judgement, and they are correspondingly unreliable. The procedure outlined here involves measurement of fluency for...

  9. James Jupp

    Australia has been defined in many different ways over the past two centuries. From 1788 to the separation of Queensland in 1859 it developed as a series of British colonies, each one answerable to London rather than to anywhere else. Being British was its defining ethnic feature and anyone who was not British, and preferably of Anglo-Celtic origin, was not always welcome, though not excluded. Preference was given to the Protestant Germans and Scandinavians, but Catholic Italians and Croatians were less welcome and there was considerable criticism of the Irish despite them being British subjects. Within a generation Australia was...

  10. Christine Inglis

    This chapter explores how integration and multiculturalism intersect with, affect and, in turn, are influenced by their encounter with Australian youth. This focus on a social category, rather than being restricted to a particular dimension of incorporation, reflects a realisation that in the modern world youth has emerged as a distinctive social grouping in transition between childhood and adult life with its own cultural features, interests and challenges. Key social changes contributing to the construction of this distinct social group include the extension of universal education, increasing longevity, changes in family formation and the world of work as well as...

  11. Reg Appleyard

    The demographic objective of Australia’s post war immigration policy – to achieve numbers equal to one percent of the population each year – initially gave top priority to persons from the United Kingdom. This was supplemented by immigrants, mainly northern Europeans, under specific programs with countries such as the Netherlands, and also under the IRO (International Refugee Organization). When the pool of so-called displaced persons dried up, the government turned to countries in southern Europe to achieve its policy target. Initial reluctance to give southern Europeans a central place in the immigration program had been based mainly on the view that they...

  12. Michael Clyne and James Jupp

    Unfriendly critics were arguing by 2005 that ‘multiculturalism was dead in Australia’. This was based on the approach of the Howard Coalition government, which had gradually run down multicultural programmes and finally eliminated the term from the once again renamed Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC). Emphasis on ‘integration’, citizenship and values had become official Commonwealth policy, inspired partly by developments in Britain and the European Union that were responding to increased concern at Islamist militancy and refugee intakes¹. Elections in Canada and New Zealand brought in governments less sympathetic to multiculturalism than their predecessors. The election of two British...