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21st Century Chinese Cyberwarfare

21st Century Chinese Cyberwarfare

WILLIAM T. HAGESTAD
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: IT Governance Publishing
Pages: 349
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5hh5nz
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    21st Century Chinese Cyberwarfare
    Book Description:

    21st Century Chinese Cyberwarfare draws from a combination of business, cultural, historical and linguistic sources, as well as the author's personal experience, to attempt to explain China to the uninitiated. The objective of the book is to present the salient information regarding the use of cyber warfare doctrine by the People's Republic of China to promote its own interests and enforce its political, military and economic will on other nation states. The threat of Chinese Cyberwarfare can no longer be ignored. It is a clear and present danger to the experienced and innocent alike and will be economically, societally and culturally changing and damaging for the nations that are targeted.

    eISBN: 978-1-84928-335-9
    Subjects: Technology
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. 1-4)
  2. FOREWORD (pp. 5-6)
    Mike and Michael L Kearn

    Time is an interesting word. When we think about time and more specifically how cultures, countries, and technology evolve with time we realize the only certainty is the past. The author of this book has spent a lot of time, more than 27 years in fact, studying cultures in a military capacity. To know an adversary intimately is to respect their capability and understand their perspective. Lieutenant Colonel William Hagestad is considered an expert on the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) because of the time he spent analyzing the capabilities of the PLA during his tenure in the United States...

  3. PREFACE (pp. 7-7)
  4. ABOUT THE AUTHOR (pp. 8-8)
  5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (pp. 9-11)
    Bill Hagestad
  6. Table of Contents (pp. 12-15)
  7. INTRODUCTION (pp. 16-17)

    The People's Republic of China is a vast and beautiful country with an eloquent language, a diverse culture and a rich history transcending any of the notions held by Western civilization. Trying to understand the vast panorama that is called China in the pages of one publication is impossible. Belief that one is a so-called expert on China is a fallacy; stating that one, who is a non-native speaker of Mandarin Chinese, is fluent, is similarly disrespectful.

    The study of armed conflict, for any military professional, must include a reverent reflection on both works of the Ancient Chinese military philosopher...

  8. GLOSSARY (pp. 18-23)
  9. CHAPTER 1: THE CHINESE CYBERTHREAT (pp. 24-37)

    We will begin with a summary of the convincing, credible data that exists regarding the Chinese cyberthreat. The frequency, tenacity and veracity of advanced, persistent cyberattacks from the Internet originating from within the People's Republic of China is undeniable and yet largely unexplained, as absolute, attributable evidence, directly leading to either the State, Communist Party or military within China, has yet to be conclusively demonstrated. However, reports of systematic, enduring cyberincursions borne from the People's Republic of China are irrefutable and absolutely undeniable.

    The US Department of Defense (DoD) has been the subject of numerous cyberattacks and data exfiltration campaigns...

  10. CHAPTER 2: EVOLUTION OF CHINESE CYBERWARFARE (pp. 38-54)

    In Chapter 2, the Eight Pillars of Unrestricted Warfare will be introduced and examined, followed by a review of the key motivators for nation-state sponsored cyberwarfare, from the Chinese perspective. An overview of the cyberattackers will also be examined: the Communist Party of China (CPC), People's Liberation Army (PLA), state-owned enterprises (SOE) and citizen hacktivists (CH) will all be briefly introduced as actors on the Chinese cyberwarfare stage.

    The CPC is the key governmental and political powerbase behind cyberwarfare in the People's Republic of China.lxiiPresident Hu Jintao has made an official proclamation that the People's Liberation Army (PLA) is...

  11. CHAPTER 3: CHINESE UNRESTRICTED WARFARE (pp. 55-63)

    Unrestricted warfare, 超限戰 (traditional Mandarin Chinese) pronounced Chāo xiàn zhàn in Pin Yin, transliterated, means a war without limits or war beyond limits, thus the popular title in the West, "Unrestricted warfare". Unrestricted warfare was published in Beijing, PRC by the PLA Literature Arts Publishing House, in February 1999.

    "Unrestricted Warfare" was authored by two senior colonels, Colonel Qiao Liang, and Colonel Wang Xiang sui, who serves as the Director of the Strategy Center at the Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics; both hold the rank of Senior Colonel in the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).

    Colonel Qiao Liang...

  12. CHAPTER 4: PRINCIPLES OF WARFARE – WEST VERSUS EAST (pp. 64-85)

    Before entering to the realm of the People's Liberation Army and how they dominate cyberspace with their version 21st Century cyberwarfare, one should have an understanding of how both Chinese and non-Chinese militaries conduct traditional kinetic effects-based warfare. It is necessary to map Western principles of warfare to Eastern principles; indeed it is essential, in that it lays a foundation for the principles of 21st century Chinese cyberwarfare to be discussed comparatively with the way in which the West intends to fight in the 5th domain. Only then can a better appreciation be achieved regarding PRC designs for cyberwarfare doctrine....

  13. CHAPTER 5: NATURE OF INFORMATION WARFARE (pp. 86-95)

    During 1995, Senior Colonels Wang Baocun and Li Fei, who serve at Academy of Military Science, Beijing Military District of the People's Liberation Army, wrote a series of articles for the June 13th and June 20th editions of theLiberation Army Daily.

    The application of information warfare within Chinese military cyberwarfare doctrinal development is very important. The theories and statements from both Senior Colonels echo the PLA's frustration of not being able to compete on the international combat arms stage, and exemplify the need for action within the Chinese military leadership to develop a cogent cyberstrategy.

    Use of this important...

  14. CHAPTER 6: CHINESE CYBERWARFARE DOCTRINES (pp. 96-119)

    The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) has been sensitive to continuous changes in international geo-political and geo-strategic contexts, as well as the changing nature of warfare overall. The PLA has fashioned responses to these nation-state strategic civil-military-political changes by developing appropriate military doctrines and strategies to meet future threats and challenges.

    The Chinese PLA military doctrine has undergone a transition from 'people's war' to "people's war under modern conditions"; this is a historical fact and pre-requisite. Subsequent tactical strategic references "limited local war" have changed similarly to "limited war under high tech conditions".

    The PLA's doctrinal concept of limited war...

  15. CHAPTER 7: CHINA'S SIGINT CAPABILITIES (pp. 120-136)

    China is actively and extensively engaged in signals intelligence (SIGINT), electronic warfare (EW) and cyberwarfare activities. It ranks as the leader in Asia, in some important information warfare (IW) areas. China maintains the most extensive SIGINT capabilities of all the Asian countries. China has more SIGINT ground stations. Most of these were obtained from the Soviet Union in the 1950s, such as the large Krug circularly disposed antenna array (CDAA), and the Moon systems used for strategic SIGINT and HF DF operations; many of them have been considerably up-graded in the subsequent decades. China probably has more facilities for intercepting...

  16. CHAPTER 8: CHINESE IW CAPABILITIES (pp. 137-146)

    China is the leader in IW in Asia, at least according to more quantitative measurements. It has the most SIGINT ground stations in the region, and the most EW sets installed aboard combat aircraft and naval combatants. The People's Republic of China collects voluminous diplomatic and military COMINT, facilitating crypt-analytical processes and providing invaluable strategic and military intelligence. It comprehensively monitors electromagnetic emissions from around its borders, collecting a massive amount of ELINT about the radars, EW systems and electronic sub-systems aboard weapons platforms maintained by neighboring defense forces. Its EW systems have been tested in large-scale field exercises more...

  17. CHAPTER 9: THE CHINESE IW ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE (pp. 147-170)

    To set the stage for an understanding of China's intelligence organizational structure (particularly within the People's Liberation Army), and the ability to conduct espionage and cyberespionage, a snapshot of the PLA's state-ordered budget is necessary.

    In 2011, China's defense budget grew 12.7 per cent to $91.5 billion, the largest in the world after the US. The importance of this increased Chinese military spend has certainly not been lost on the many nation-states who felt their information networks probed – allegedly by IP addresses associated with the People's Republic of China.

    The PLA's capacity to increase its weapons platforms comes directly...

  18. CHAPTER 10: CHINESE COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISES (pp. 171-190)

    Who are the key decision makers from an economic policy perspective in the People's Republic of China? According to theChina Business Reviewin 2008, Mr Cheng Li reported that "most of the major economic decisions in the country are subject to final approval by the nine-member Politburo Standing Committee (PSC) of the Communist Party of China."cdxvi

    Only four members of the PSC, which includes President Hu Jintao, Premier Wen Jaiobao, Vice President Xi Jinping, and Executive Vice Premier Li Keqiang, are partially or primarily responsible for economic affairs within the People's Republic of China. Additionally, only three of 16...

  19. CHAPTER 11: COMMERCIAL OBJECTIVES OF CHINESE CYBERATTACKS (pp. 191-208)

    According to the 2010 US-China Economic and Security Review Commission, there are several reasons to be concerned about the People's Republic of China. Although these are cautionary words, they are not alarmist, or are they? The US-China Economic and Security Review Commission has a legislatively-mandated mission to "monitor, investigate and submit to Congress, an annual report on the national security implications of the bilateral and economic relationship between the United States and the People's Republic of China (PRC), and to provide recommendations, where appropriate, to Congress for legislative and administration action." Public Law 108–7, the amendment to the initial...

  20. CHAPTER 12: CHINESE CIVILIAN HACKERS (pp. 209-213)

    The People's Liberation Army is not very different, in doctrinal terms, from any professional army. The concept of future operations is extremely important to the PLA. The need to integrate future operations is a prerequisite for any military operations planning and strategy.

    This need for military operational foresight was not lost on General Dai, as he wrote of his information warfare strategies. He stated that they "must be integrated."cdlxxxviiiAn example of integrated future operations includes the integration of both "military and civilian information fighting forces."cdlxxxixAn example of this IW operational concept is seen in the recruitment of civilian...

  21. CHAPTER 13: THE CHINESE CYBERTHREAT: CONCLUSIONS (pp. 214-233)

    The central thesis of this book is that the People's Republic of China has a comprehensive cyberwarfare strategy that has both offensive and defensive objectives, and which encompasses government, military and commercial spheres. The question, for non-Chinese organizations, is: "how does one protect oneself against such attacks?"

    Protection of an enterprise IT network must be based, in the context of 21st century Chinese cyberwarfare, on the concept of "realization": the realization that the organization's network and intellectual property has already been compromised.

    Every information security professional should have the NIST's special publication,NIST SP: 800-12 An Introduction to Computer Security:...

  22. APPENDIX A: CHINA & THE INTERNET - A HISTORY (pp. 234-268)
  23. APPENDIX B: CHINESE CYBERACTIVISM IN THE SPOTLIGHT (pp. 269-286)
  24. APPENDIX C: CHINA'S INFORMIZATION CAMPAIGN (pp. 287-288)
  25. APPENDIX D: GENERAL WANG PUFENG'S CHALLENGE OF INFORMATION WARFARE (pp. 289-298)
  26. APPENDIX E: 'THROUGH THE NIGHT OF THE LANTERN' (pp. 299-299)
  27. APPENDIX F: CHINESE HACKER WEBSITE RESOURCES (pp. 300-301)
  28. APPENDIX G: HUAWEI'S STATEMENT ON ESTABLISHING A GLOBAL CYBERSECURITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM (pp. 302-304)
  29. APPENDIX H: PLA'S NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY AND CHINA'S CYBERWAR PREPARATIONS (pp. 305-307)
  30. ITG RESOURCES (pp. 308-309)
  31. BIBLIOGRAPHY (pp. 310-349)