The Soldier and the Changing State

The Soldier and the Changing State: Building Democratic Armies in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas

Copyright Date: 2012
Pages: 392
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    The Soldier and the Changing State
    Book Description:

    The Soldier and the Changing Stateis the first book to systematically explore, on a global scale, civil-military relations in democratizing and changing states. Looking at how armies supportive of democracy are built, Zoltan Barany argues that the military is the most important institution that states maintain, for without military elites who support democratic governance, democracy cannot be consolidated. Barany also demonstrates that building democratic armies is the quintessential task of newly democratizing regimes. But how do democratic armies come about? What conditions encourage or impede democratic civil-military relations? And how can the state ensure the allegiance of its soldiers?

    Barany examines the experiences of developing countries and the armed forces in the context of major political change in six specific settings: in the wake of war and civil war, after military and communist regimes, and following colonialism and unification/apartheid. He evaluates the army-building and democratization experiences of twenty-seven countries and explains which predemocratic settings are most conducive to creating a military that will support democracy. Highlighting important factors and suggesting which reforms can be expected to work and fail in different environments, he offers practical policy recommendations to state-builders and democratizers.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-4549-1
    Subjects: Political Science, History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents (pp. vii-viii)
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (pp. ix-xiv)
  4. Introduction (pp. 1-13)

    On May 23, 2003, Order No. 2 of the Coalition Provisional Authority, the U.S.- dominated transitional government that oversaw postwar Iraq in 2003–2004, disbanded the entire Iraqi armed forces. This was a controversial decision for a number of reasons. While the Ba’ath regime was uniformly hated in Kurdistan and amongst the population in southern Iraq, the military—a conscript army with a large proportion of Shia Muslim draftees and Sunni officers—had enjoyed considerable sympathy and respect in the rest of the country.¹ The dismissal of the Iraqi army created an alarming security and public safety vacuum; produced a...

  5. CHAPTER 1 What Does a Democratic Army Look Like? (pp. 14-44)

    There is no organization more important for the survival of the state than its armed forces. For millennia, communities have relied on armies for protection, for conquest, and for less obvious functions, such as conveying their strength and commitment to defend and advance their interests. Yet, many people, even those interested in politics and governance, have little understanding of the military as an institution charged with a country’s defense. Where does the army fit in the organizational structure of the state? What are politicians’ expectations of the armed forces? What are the military’s responsibilities to the state and to society?...

    • CHAPTER 2 After World War II: Germany, Japan, and Hungary (pp. 47-77)

      This is the first of the nine empirical chapters where we will look at how democratic armies have been built in various settings. This chapter is different from the ones that follow in two respects. First, though the emphasis is placed mainly on countries whose army was being built, as in the other chapters, in this postwar context, external actors played a more fundamental role than in most other settings. Second, while in our two main cases the intent of political elites and foreign actors was clearly to builddemocraticarmies, in the case of Hungary, I want to show...

    • CHAPTER 3 After Civil War: Bosnia and Herzegovina, El Salvador, and Lebanon (pp. 78-110)

      “Civil war” is a controversial concept in large part because civil wars are often thought of very differently by individuals fighting on opposite sides: the aggressors are likely to call it “civil war” while to those who are attacked such terminology suggests that all sides are equally culpable. Among the three cases I consider in this chapter, this notion was most apparent in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where many Bosniaks (Muslims) I interviewed took umbrage at my using the term “civil war” to describe the 1992-95 war in their country. After all, they said, “we were attacked by the Serbs and...

    • CHAPTER 4 After Military Rule in Europe: Spain, Portugal, and Greece (pp. 113-142)

      This is the first of four chapters in which we are investigating the ways in which democratic armies were built in response to regime change, and the first of three chapters where, more specifically, we are concerned with building new armed forces after military or praetorian rule in three different continents.¹ Praetorianism is one of the most common versions of authoritarian government, and we will learn about additional cases in the last part of the book. Both Pakistan and Ghana went through periods of military rule though our primary interest in them is how they developed their armies as a...

    • CHAPTER 5 After Military Rule in Latin America: Argentina, Chile, and Guatemala (pp. 143-177)

      Walking the streets of Santiago and Buenos Aires, it is hard not to notice that an inordinately large share of public statues and monuments depict generals and admirals in their heavily ornamented uniforms, often on horseback. This is all the more curious because most generals there distinguished themselves not protecting their domain from foreign enemies or conquering faraway lands but fighting indigenous peoples, suppressing domestic “undesirables,” and governing their countries. Praetorian politics has a long tradition in Latin America, and, unlike in many other contexts, military rule often did not go hand in hand with low levels of socioeconomic development....

    • CHAPTER 6 After Military Rule in Asia: South Korea, Thailand, and Indonesia (pp. 178-211)

      While most authoritarian systems in South America during the Cold War were of the praetorian variety, in East- and Southeast Asia military or quasi-military regimes (e.g., Burma, Indonesia, the Philippines, South Korea,* Taiwan, Thailand) were complemented by state-socialist polities (e.g., Cambodia, China, Laos, Vietnam). In this chapter we are concerned with the first group of states. Third-wave democratization for postmilitary regimes has resulted in sharply different outcomes in East- and Southeast Asia. In East Asian states such as South Korea and Taiwan, economic growth and the development of civil society spurred a political opening and, in time, produced a consolidated...

    • CHAPTER 7 After State-Socialism in Europe: Slovenia, Russia, and Romania (pp. 212-242)

      Having learned about building democratic armies following military regimes in three continents, in this chapter we turn our attention to how this objective has been approached in regimes following another type of authoritarianism. Although “state-socialist” or “communist” regimes have taken root in a number of regions, they originated in and were most prominent in the eastern part of Europe after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917.¹ Most East European communist states shared many similarities in terms of their political institutional framework, economic system, and social relations owing to the Soviet Union’s control of much of the region and adherence to Marxist-Leninist...

    • CHAPTER 8 After Colonial Rule in Asia: India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (pp. 245-274)

      Building a military establishment that is loyal to the constitution and supports the democratically elected government poses special challenges in postcolonial environments. In this chapter and the next, I am going to examine how this objective has been approached in countries that have some similarities but are also set apart by important differences. the focus here is on the two pivotal states of South asia: India and pakistan; Bangladesh, the secondary case, is connected to the two others by many organic ties. the entire region that now encompasses the three states—and some others besides—was colonized by the British....

    • CHAPTER 9 After Colonial Rule in Africa: Ghana, Tanzania, and Botswana (pp. 275-302)

      In the previous chapter we saw the different trajectories of military politics in India and pakistan. In this chapter our. attention shifts to Africa but we will stay with the postcolonial context as we get acquainted with three other countries that experienced British rule prior to independence. The primary cases here are Ghana in West Africa and Tanzania in East Africa, the erstwhile Gold Coast and Tanganyika, respectively. In 1957 Ghana was the first Sub-Saharan European colony to gain independence; Tanganyika became a sovereign state in 1961. Our secondary case is Botswana, a former British protectorate in southern africa that...

    • CHAPTER 10 After (Re)Unification and Apartheid: Germany, South Africa, and Yemen (pp. 303-338)

      In chapter 3, I explained how armies may be built after civil war. The topic of this chapter is similar to the extent that here, too, we are interested in cases where two entities are brought together and, in some cases, brought togetheragain. We are going to look at three different but equally intriguing cases. In that of Germany, the armed forces of the newly reunified state reflected the outcome of the Cold War: very little remained that could remind one of the erstwhile army of East Germany. In Yemen, the secondary case, North and South Yemen, two Cold...

  9. Conclusion (pp. 339-358)

    What wisdom can we distill from the trajectory of military politics following our exploration of the three contexts in six settings and twenty-seven cases? In this concluding section I will assess the arguments and then attempt to answer the general questions posed at the beginning of the book in light of the evidence presented in the case-study chapters. In the second half of the conclusion I will outline the policies and conditions that advance or inhibit the development of armies supportive of democratic rule. I will discuss these issues and formulate some policy recommendations to assist democracy activists and policy-makers...

  10. NOTES (pp. 359-408)
  11. BIBLIOGRAPHY (pp. 409-442)
  12. INDEX (pp. 443-456)

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