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Coldest Harbour in the Land

Coldest Harbour in the Land: Simon Stock and Lord Baltimore's Colony in Newfoundland, 1621-1649

Luca Codignola
Copyright Date: 1988
Pages: 256
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  • Book Info
    Coldest Harbour in the Land
    Book Description:

    In 1624 Simon Stock, a missionary priest of the Discalced Carmelite order in England, began correspondence with the recently founded Congregation of the Propaganda Fide in Rome in an attempt to interest it in the establishment of a novitiate for English priests of his order. Luca Codignola draws on the letters of Simon Stock and material in the archives of the Propaganda Fide and the Carmelite order to present a fascinating picture of seventeenth-century Catholic colonization.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6105-2
    Subjects: History
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface to the English Edition (pp. ix-x)
  4. Preface and Acknowledgments (pp. xi-xiii)
  5. Abbreviations (pp. xiv-xv)
  6. Illustrations (pp. xvi-xxvi)
  7. PART ONE: Simon Stock, Propaganda Fide, and Lord Baltimor’s Colony in Newfoundland
    • CHAPTER ONE Introduction (pp. 3-5)

      This book recounts events in the history of the colony of Avalon in Newfoundland, which flourished between 1621 and 1630. It can be read from three different viewpoints. The first is that of a missionary, the Discalced Carmelite Simon Stock (1576–1652), who lived through one of the most difficult moments of English Catholicism, caughts as he was between the persecution of the Protestant establishment and the serious national crisis which was to lead to Cromwell’s revolution. The second viewpoint is not that of an individual but of a ministry, then only recently established under the name of the Sacred...

    • CHAPTER TWO Simon Stock, Discalced Carmelite, Meets Lord Baltimore, 1621–24 (pp. 6-13)

      Relatively little is known of the Discalced Carmelite Simon Stock, born Thomas Doughty. Yet Stock wrote books, had access to the diplomatic and political circles of the London area, and was a person of some importance in the Catholic community of early seventeenth-century England. His confrère Benedict Zimmerman wrote a brief biography of him at the end of the nineteenth century,¹ and all subsequent mention of Stock is based, without exception, on Zimmerman’s work. The Carmelite historian, in turn, based his work entirely on a manuscript history of the English mission compiled in 1705 by another confrère, Biagio della Purificazione,²...

    • CHAPTER THREE Sir Arthur Aston, Adventurer, Agrees to Embark for Newfoundland, 1625 (pp. 14-22)

      Having resigned as secretary of state, George Calvert, now Lord Baltimore, immediately set about preparing for his departure for Newfoundland. In a letter to the Sacred Congregation “de Propaganda Fide” of 8 February 1625, Simon Stock was the first to give news of it. Since the English nobleman wanted “to take with him two or three religious to sow the Holy Faith in his land,” Stock asked Propaganda to help him in his noble purpose because there were only three Discalced Carmelites in England at the time.¹ The departure was to take place in the spring, and some fifteen or...

    • CHAPTER FOUR Simon Stock Learns About The New World, 1625 (pp. 23-31)

      The whole of the summer of 1625 passed without further correspondence between Simon Stock and the Sacred Congregation “de Propaganda Fide.”¹ George Calvert, Baron Baltimore, was in Ireland; Sir Arthur Aston, in Newfoundland, having replaced Edward Wynne as governor of Avalon. The return of “a number of those Catholics,”² that is, some of those who had accompanied Aston to Avalon at the end of May, was expected by October 1625. Before then it was not possible to have any information whatsoever about the outcome of the expedition and the settlers’ first impressions. It was a good time for Stock to...

    • CHAPTER FIVE The Search for the Northwest Passage, 1626 (pp. 32-40)

      To Simon Stock, the beginning of 1626 appeared particularly difficult. After Sir Arthur Aston’s letter of October 1625,¹ nothing more had been heard of the Avalon colony, while George Calvert, Baron Baltimore, was still living in Ireland. The missionaries destined for the colony still had not left, and indeed they showed no inclination to do so, either that year or the next. The whole project already seemed an illusion. What was worse, without the help of the Sacred Congregation “de Propaganda Fide,” the English mission itself, under whose jurisdiction Avalon came and on which the Avalon project depended for recruiting...

    • CHAPTER SIX Lord Baltimore’s Pleasant Summer in Avalon, 1627 (pp. 41-45)

      After a long silence lasting almost eight months, probably as much the result of the “troubles and persecution”¹ in England as of postal difficulties,² on 12 February 1627 Simon Stock wrote once more to the Sacred Congregation “de Propaganda Fide.” As he did not hesitate to point out, he had been asking Propaganda’s help regarding the Avalon mission for two years now, and still nothing had been done.³ His disillusionment was obvious, as was the fact that the many frustrations had greatly cooled his initial enthusiasm. While the letters of 1625 and 1626 had been almost exclusively taken up with...

    • CHAPTER SEVEN Lord Baltimore Decides to Settle in Avalon for Good, 1628 (pp. 46-50)

      George Calvert, Baron Baltimore, quickly showed his satisfaction with his stay in Ferryland. No sooner had he come back to England than he set about making preparations for his permanent return to Newfoundland. He immediately informed the king, Charles I, who promptly wrote to his lord deputy in Ireland, Henry Cary, Viscount Falkland (19/29 January 1627/1628) informing him that, since Lord Baltimore wished to supervise the colony personally, he had given him leave to depart. He was to be allowed, the king specified, to depart from whichever Irish port he chose and to take with him whatever he saw fit.¹...

    • CHAPTER EIGHT The Tragic Ending of an Adventure, 1629–30 (pp. 51-57)

      From the time he set foot in Newfoundland at the beginning of the summer of 1628, George Calvert, Baron Baltimore, had precious little time in which to organize and consolidate the position of his colony. Only a few weeks after his arrival, he was writing, with an obvious note of bitterness: “I came to builde, and sett, and sowe, but I am falne to fighting with frenchmen who have here disquieted mee and many other of his Maiesties Subiects fishing in this Land.”¹

      That year the French pirates who overran Newfoundland under the command of Captain Raymond de La Ralde²...

    • CHAPTER NINE Conclusion (pp. 58-62)

      Simon Stock’s interest in North America finally waned just as the great Puritan emigration, whose beginnings he had witnessed with consternation, took a firm and lasting hold. The America Stock abandoned in 1630 was already very different from the America he had stumbled across in 1625, and it was to change still more in the two decades to follow. While thousands of English settlers occupied the coasts of America, the French, who settled along the shores of the St. Lawrence, steadily established themselves in the continent’s interior. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the Atlantic Ocean was to...

  8. PART TWO: The Letters of Simon Stock
  9. Notes to Part One (pp. 141-172)
  10. Notes to Part Two (pp. 173-190)
  11. Bibliography (pp. 191-218)
  12. Index (pp. 219-229)