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Population, Technology, and Growth: From Malthusian Stagnation to the Demographic Transition and beyond

Oded Galor and David N. Weil
The American Economic Review
Vol. 90, No. 4 (Sep., 2000), pp. 806-828
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/117309
Page Count: 23
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Population, Technology, and Growth: From Malthusian Stagnation to the Demographic Transition and beyond
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Abstract

This paper develops a unified growth model that captures the historical evolution of population, technology, and output. It encompasses the endogenous transition between three regimes that have characterized economic development. The economy evolves from a Malthusian regime, where technological progress is slow and population growth prevents any sustained rise in income per capita, into a Post-Malthusian regime, where technological progress rises and population growth absorbs only part of output growth. Ultimately, a demographic transition reverses the positive relationship between income and population growth, and the economy enters a Modern Growth regime with reduced population growth and sustained income growth.

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