Comparisons of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) foraging with cows and alone show that those foraging with cows capture more food items and take fewer steps to do so. Egrets are about 3.6 times as efficient when foraging with cows as when foraging alone. Cattle egrets foraging behind moving farm machinery capture food at about the same rate as those foraging with cows but they take more steps. Foraging with farm machinery is more efficient than foraging alone. The association of cattle egrets with cows clearly is advantageous to the egret but the possible beneficial effects to cows have not been shown.
The American Midland Naturalist has been published for 90 years by the University of Notre Dame. The connotations of Midland and Naturalist have broadened and its geographic coverage now includes North America with occasional articles from other continents. The old image of naturalist has changed and the journal publishes what Charles Elton aptly termed "scientific natural history" including field and experimental biology. Its significance and breadth of coverage are evident in that the American Midland Naturalist is among the most frequently cited journals in publications on ecology, mammalogy, herpetology, ornithology, ichthyology, parasitology, aquatic and invertebrate biology and other biological disciplines.
Simultaneously an international center for Catholic thought, a teaching-focused liberal arts college, and a dynamic hub for research and scholarship, the College of Arts and Letters at the University of Notre Dame provides its students with an education that fuels their passion for learning while preparing them to make a difference in the world. The largest and oldest college in the university, Arts and Letters houses the divisions of the arts, humanities, and social sciences. It encompasses 21 departments, more than 40 undergraduate and graduate degree programs, and a variety of interdisciplinary centers. Approximately 2,500 undergraduates and 750 graduate students pursue degrees through Arts and Letters programs; students from throughout Notre Dame enroll in thought-provoking Arts and Letters courses.