India's Council of States includes 12 members selected by the president of the Republic for their special knowledge of literature, science, art, and social service, according to a constitutional provision presuming that individuals with distinction in these fields would not be elected. The 60 members who have served in this role over three decades brought their professional judgments to bear in relevant debates, but also advocated the special interests of their professions, their regions, and, occasionally, their political parties. Generally their behavior has resembled that of elected MPs. Appointed members sit in the parliaments of 25 other countries, to fulfill a variety of special purposes whose realization has not, however, been studied.
The Legislative Studies Quarterly is an international journal devoted to the publication of research on representative assemblies. Its purpose is to disseminate scholarly work on parliaments and legislatures, their relations to other political institutions, their functions in the political system, and the activities of their members both within the institution and outside. Contributions are invited from scholars in all countries. The pages of the Quarterly are open to all research approaches consistent with the normal canons of scholarship, and to work on representative assemblies in all settings and all time periods. The aim of the journal is to contribute to the formulation and verification of general theories about legislative systems, processes, and behavior. The editors encourage contributors to emphasize the cross-national implications of their findings, even if these findings are based on research within a single country. The Legislative Studies Quarterly is the official journal of the Legislative Studies Section of the American Political Science Association.
Washington University creates an environment to encourage and support an ethos of wide-ranging exploration. Washington University’s faculty and staff strive to enhance the lives and livelihoods of students, the people of the greater St. Louis community, the country and the world.