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Some Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied in Judicial Reasoning

Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld
The Yale Law Journal
Vol. 23, No. 1 (Nov., 1913), pp. 16-59
DOI: 10.2307/785533
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/785533
Page Count: 44
Subjects: Law
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Some Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied in Judicial Reasoning
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Notes and References

This item contains 94 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Bacon on Uses (Circa 1602; Rowe's ed. 1806), pp. 5-6
  • 2
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Co. Lit. (1628) 272 b
    • Lewin, Trusts (12th ed., 1911), p. 11.
    • Maitland, Lectures on Equity (1909), pp. 43, 116.
  • 3
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Langdell, Classification of Rights and Wrongs (1900), 13Harv. L. Rev., 659, 673
    • (1887) 1Harv. L. Rev., 55, 60
    • Ibid. 58
    • Summary of Eq. Plead. (2nd ed., 1883) secs. 45, 182-184.
  • 4
    Ames, "Purchase for Value Without Notice" (1887), 1Harv. L. Rev., 1, 9
  • 5
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Lect. on Eq. (1909), 17, 18, 112
    • Maitland, Trust and Corporation (1904)
    • 3 Collected Papers, 321, 325
  • 7
    (2nd ed., 1907) p. 230
  • 8
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Walter G. Hart (author of "Digest of Law of Trusts"), The Place of Trust in Jurisprudence (1912)
    • 28Law Quart. Rev., 290, 296.
  • 9
    A. N. Whitlock, Classification of the Law of Trusts (1913), 1 Calif. Law Rev., 215, 218
  • 10
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Beale, Equitable Interests in Foreign Property, 20Harv. L. Rev. (1907), 382
    • Fall v. Eastin (1905), 75 Neb., 104
    • S. C. (1909), 215 U. S., 1, 14-15
    • Selover, Bates & Co. v. Walsh (1912), 226 U. S., 112
    • Bank of Africa Limited v. Cohen (1909), 2 Ch. 129, 143.
  • 11
    (1882) 20 Ch. D. 562, 580
  • 12
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ball v. Milliken (1910), 31 R. I., 36
    • 76 Atl., 789, 793
  • 13
    2 Hist. Eng. Law (2nd ed., 1905), 226.
  • 14
    Ibid., 124
  • 15
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • (1895) 67 Fed. Rep., 674, 677.
    • In re Fixen (1900), 102 Fed. Rep., 295, 296.
  • 16
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • 51 N. H., 504, 511.
    • Com- stock, J., in Wynehamner v. People (1856), 13 N. Y., 378, 396
    • Selden J., S. C., 13 N. Y., 378, 433-434
    • Ryan, C., in Law v. Rees Printing Co. (1894), 41 Neb., 127, 146
    • Magruder, J., in Dixon v. People (1897), 168 Ill., 179, 190.
  • 17
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • (1893) 116 Mo., 527, 533-534.
    • Doe, C. J., in Smith v. Fairloh (1894), 68 N. H., 123, 144-145.
  • 18
    2 Black. Com. (1765), 16-43.
  • 19
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Poll & Maitd. Hist. Eng. Law (2nd ed., 1905), Vol. II, p. 31
    • Ibid., p. 33
  • 20
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Waldo, C. J., in W~hite v. Multonomah Co. (1886), 13 Ore., 317, 323
    • Thayer, Prelim. Treat. Evid. (1898), p. 393
    • Holland, Jurisp (10th ed., 1906), 151
  • 21
    Illinois Steel Co. v. Ostrowski (1902), 194 Ill., 376, 384
  • 22
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • McCaughey v. Schuette (1897), 117 Cal., 223.
    • Rogers v. Milwaukee, 13 Wis., 610
    • Illinois Steel Co. v. Ostrowski, supra, note 21.
  • 24
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Lord Westbury, in Bell v. Kennedy (1868), L. R. 1 H. L. (Sc.), 307
    • Chief Justice Shaw, in Abinlgton v. Bridgewater (1840), 23 Pick., 170
  • 25
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • Preliminary Treatise on Evidence (1898), p. 190
    • Ibid., pp. vii, 183, 189-190, 278, 306, 351, 355, 390-393.
    • Professor John Chipman Gray, in his Nature and Sources of the Law (1909), Pref. p. viii
    • Hyde v. United States (1911), 225 U. S., 347, 391
    • Field, J., in M1organ, v. Louiisiana (1876), 93 U. S., 217, 223
    • Peckham, J. in Phoenix Ins. Co. v. Tennessee (1895), 161 U. S., 174, 177, 178.
  • 26
    (1852) 7 How. Pr., 124, 130.
  • 27
    (1893) 54 Fed. Rep., 338, 348.
  • 28
    (1871) 3 Heisk. (Tenn.), 287, 306-307.
  • 29
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Atchison & Neb. R. Co. v. Baty (1877), 6 Neb., 37, 40.
    • San Francisco v. S. V. Water Co. ( ), 48 Cal., 531
    • Gilbert, Evid. (4th ed., 1777), 126
  • 30
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • Kearns v. Cordwainers' Co. (1859), 6 C. B. N. S., 388, 409
    • The Thames Conservancy Act, 1857, 20 and 21 Vict. c. cxlvii., s. 179
    • Fearon v. Mitchell (1872), L. R. 7 Q. B., 690, 695
    • s. 50 of 21 and 22 Vict. c. 98
    • Cal. Civ. Code, sec. 648a
    • Tenn. Const. of 1834, Art. 9, sec. 7
  • 31
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • (1894) 10 Ind. App., 60
    • 37 N. E., 303, 304.
  • 32
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Howley Park Coal, etc., Co. v. L. & N. TrV. Ry. (1913), A. C. 11, 25, 27
    • Galveston, etc. Ry. Co. v'. Harrigan (1903), 76 S. W., 452, 453
  • 33
    (1883) 8 App. Cas., at p. 597.
  • 34
    This reference contains 7 citations:
    • Pearce v. Scotcher (1882), L. R. 9 Q. B., 162, 167
    • Quinn v. Leather (1901), A. C. 495 (passim)
    • Allen v. Flood (1898), A. C. 1 (passim)
    • Lindley v. Nat. Carbonic Acid Gas Co. (1910), 220 U. S., 61, 75
    • Smith v. Cornell Univ. (1894). 45 N. Y. Supp., 640, 643
    • Farnum v. Kern Valley Bk. (1910), 107 Pac., 568.
    • post, n. 38
  • 35
    El. Jurisp. (10th ed.), 83
  • 36
    Ibid., 82
  • 37
    Nat. and Sources of Law (1909), secs. 45, 184.
  • 38
    Ibid., sec. 48.
  • 40
    Lindley v. Nat. Carbonic Gas Co. (1910), 220 U. S., 61.
  • 41
    (1901) A. C., 495, 534.
  • 42
    post, pp. 38-44
  • 43
    Allen v. Flood (1898), A. C., 1.
  • 44
    (1889) 23 Q. B. D., 59.
  • 45
    This reference contains 10 citations:
    • Allen v. Flood (1898), A. C, 1
    • Hawkins, J., p. 16
    • Lord Halsbury, p. 84
    • Lord Ashbourne, p. 112
    • Quinn v. Leathern (1901), A. C., 495, 533
    • Lindsley v. Natural Carbonic Gas Co (1910), 220 U. S., 61, 74
    • Robertson v. Rochester Folding Box Co. (1902), 171 N. Y., 538
    • Parker, C. J., p. 544
    • Wabash, St. L. & P. R. Co. v. Shacklet (1883), 105 Ill., 364, 389.
    • Purdy v. State (1901), 43 Fla., 538, 540
  • 46
    (Dropsie Tr.) secs. 196-197
  • 47
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Sohm's Institutes (Ledlies Tr., 3rd ed.), 28.
    • Rector, etc. of Christ Church v. Philadelphia (1860), 24 Hoew., 300, 301, 302.
  • 48
    Blades v Higgs (1865), 11 H. L. Cas., 621, 631
  • 49
    This reference contains 8 citations:
    • Humphrey v. Pegues (1872), 16 Wall., 244, 247
    • Smith v. Floyd (1893), 140 N. Y., 337, 342
    • Lonas v. State (1871). 3 Heisk., 287, 306,307
    • Territory v Stokes (1881), 2 N. M., 161, 169, 170
    • Ripley v. Knight (1878), 123 Mass., 515, 519
    • Dike v. State (1888), 38 Minn., 366
    • Re Miller (1893), 1 Q. B., 327.
    • WVisener v. Burrell (1911), 28 Okla., 546.
  • 50
    Louisville & N. R Co. v. Gaines (1880), 3 Fed. Rep., 266, 278
  • 51
    Hawkins, J., in Allen v. Flood (1898), A. C. 1, 20-21.
  • 52
    The Relations betwen Equity and Law, 11Mich. L. Rev., 537, 554, 556, 569
  • 53
    (1583) 9 Coke, 1.
  • 54
    (1898) A. C., 1, 19.
  • 55
    1896) 89 Me., 359.
  • 56
    (1856) 6 E. & B., 47. 74.
  • 57
    This reference contains 9 citations:
    • Borland v Boston (1882), 132 Mass., 89
    • Haimnilton v. Graham (1871), L. R. 2 H. L. (Sc.), 167, 169
    • Jones zv. De Moss (1911), 151 Ia., 112, 117
    • Kripp v. Curtis (1886), 71 Cal., 62, 63
    • Lamer v. Booth (1874), 50 Miss., 411, 413
    • Weller v. Brown (1911), Cal.,
    • 117 Pac., 517
    • Mathews v. People (1903), 202 Ill., 389,-401
    • Abington v. North Bridgewater (1840), 23 Pick., 170.
  • 58
    (1898) A. C., 1, 29.
  • 59
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Starey v. Graham (1899), 1 Q. B., 406, 411
    • Sir Frederick Pollock, in his volume on Jurisprudence (2nd ed., 1904), 62
    • Pollock, Essays in Jurisp. & Ethics (1882), Ch. I.
    • Thomas v. Sorrel (1673), Vaughan, 331, 351.
  • 60
    This reference contains 13 citations:
    • Dow v. Newborough (1728), Comyns, 242
    • Bourne v. Taylor (1808), 10 East., 189
    • Wickham v. Hawkes (1840), 7 M. & W., 63, 78-79
    • Quinn v. Leathem (1901), A. C. 495, 534
    • Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. (1895), 157 U. S., 429, 652
    • Mathews v. People (1903), 202 Ill, 389, 401
    • Copyright Act, 8 Anne (1709) c. 19
    • ante p. 38, n. 48
    • Noy's Maxims (1641)
    • Blackstone (2 Com. 37)
    • S. F. Waterworks v. Schottler (1882), 62 Cal. 69, 106
    • Central R. & Banking Co. v. State (1875), 54 Ga., 401, 409.
    • Rex v. Halifax & Co. (1891), 2 Q. B., 263.
  • 61
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Pond v. Bates, 34 L. J. (N. S.), 406
    • Hamilton v. Graham (1871), L. R. 2 H. L. (Sc.), 166, 167
    • Attersoll v. Stevens (1808), 1 Taunt., 183
    • Wickham v. Hawker (1840), 7 M. & W., 63, 78-79.
  • 62
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • (1896) 12 App. Div., 17
    • 42 N. Y. Sup., 607, 609.
  • 63
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Thomas v. Sorrell (1673), Vaughan, 331, 351
    • Taylor v. Waters (1817), 7 Taunt., 374, 384
    • Heap v. Hartley (1889), 42 Ch. D., 461, 470.
  • 64
    Remington v. Parkins (1873), 10 R. I., 550, 553
  • 65
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • People v. Dikeman (1852), 7 Howard Pr., 124, 130
    • Lonas v. State (1871), 3 Heisk. (Tenn.), 287 ,306-307
    • Mabre v. Whittaker (1906), 10 Wash., 656, 663
    • St. Joseph Fire & Marine Ins. Co. v. Hanck (1876), 63 Mo., 112, 118.
  • 67
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Wynehamer v. People (1856), 13 N. Y., 378, 396
    • Bartemeyer v. Iowa (1873), 18 Wall., 129, 137
    • Low v. Rees Printing Co. (1894), 41 Neb., 127, 146
  • 68
    Hunt v. Rousmanier (1883), 8 Wheat., 173, 201.
  • 69
    This reference contains 7 citations:
    • Pope v. Nickerson (1844), 3 Story, 465, 473, 476, 481, 483
    • Lloyd v Guibert (1865), 6 B. & S., 100, 117
    • King v. Sarria (1877), 69 N. Y., 24, 28, 30-32
    • Risdon, etc., Works v. Furness (1905), 1 K. B. 304
    • (1906) 1 K. B. 49.
    • The Individual Liability of Stockholders and the Con- flict of Laws (1909), 9Columb. L. Rev., 492, 512, n. 46, 521, n. 71
    • 10 Columb. L. Rev., 542-544.
  • 70
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Milliken v. Pratt (1878), 125 Mass., 374
    • Freeman's Appeal (1897), 68 Conn., 533
  • 71
    Emery v. Clough (1885), 63 N. H., 552
  • 72
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Hudgens v. Chamberlain (1911), 161 Cal., 710, 713, 715.
    • Capital, etc., Bk. v. Rhodes (1903), 1 Ch. 631, 655
  • 73
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Carpenter v. Scott (1881), 13 R. I., 477, 479
    • Christensen v. Nelson (1901), 38 Or. 473. 477, 479
  • 74
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Davis zv. Clark (1897), 58 Kan. 100
    • 48 Pac., 563, 565
    • Leiter v. Pike (1889), 127 Ill., 287, 326
    • Welstur v. Trust Co. (1895), 145 N. Y., 275, 283
    • Furley v. Palmer (1870), 20 Oh. St., 223, 225.
  • 75
    Sugden, in his work on Powers (8th ed., 1861) 4
  • 76
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • S. Australia v. Abrahams, L. R. P. C., 265
    • Barlow v. Ross (1890), 24 Q. B. D., 381, 384.
  • 77
    Frost v. Knight (1872) L. R. 7 Ex. 111
  • 78
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Boston R. Co. v. Bartlett (1849), 3 Cush., 225
    • Ashley, Contr. (1911), 16 et. seq.
  • 79
    Langdell, Sum. Contr. (2nd ed., 1880), sec. 178.
  • 80
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ashley, Contr. (1911), 25 et seq.
    • R. L. McWilliams, Enforcement of Option Agreements (1913), 1Calif. Law Rev., 122.
  • 81
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • J'. G. Reese Co. Tv. House (1912), 162 Cal., 740, 745
    • Linn v. McLean (1885), 80 Ala., 360, 364
    • O'Brien v. Boland (1896), 166 Mass., 481, 483
    • Baker v. Shaw (1912), 68 Wash., 99 103
  • 83
    Keener, Quasi-Contr. (1893), p. 18.
  • 84
    (1892) 142 Ill., 388, 397.
  • 85
    1861) 16 Grat., 519, 525.
  • 86
    (1885) 63 N. H., 552.
  • 87
    (1873) 36 Ia., 224, 226.
  • 88
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Attorney General v. Sudeley (1896), 1 Q. B., 354, 359
    • Kroessin v. Keller (1895), 60 Minn., 372
  • 89
    (1892) 95 Cal., 317, 319.
  • 90
    Dougherty v. Creary (1866), 30 Cal', 290, 298.
  • 91
    (1895) 161 U.. S., 174, 177.
  • 92
    (1876) 93 U. S., 217, 222.
  • 93
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Picard v. Tennessee, etc., R. Co. (1888), 130 U. S., 637, 642
    • Rochester Railway Co. v. Rochester (1906) 205 U. S., 236, 252
    • Internal. & G. N. Ry. Co. v. State (1899), 75 Tex., 356
    • Sloss, J., in Smith v. Bougham (1909), 156 -Cal., 359, 365
  • 94
    Choate v. Trapp (1912), 224 U. S., 665.
  • 95
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Brearly School, Limited v. Ward (1911), 201 N. Y., 358
    • 94 N. E., 1001
    • Ann. Cas., 1912 B, 259
  • 96
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Internat. & G. N. Ry. Co. v. State (1899), 75 Tex., 356
    • ante, n. 91
  • 97
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Wilson v. Gaines (1877), 9 Baxt. (Tenn.), 546, 550- 551
    • Strahan z'. Wayne Co. (June, 1913), 142 N. W., 678, 680
  • 98
    (1677) 2 Swanst., 170.
  • 99
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Vacher 6& Sons, Limited v. London Society of Compositors (1913), A. C. -107, 118, 125
    • Baylies v. Bishop of London (1913), 1 Ch., 127, 139, 140
    • Poury v. Hordern (1900), 1 Ch., 492, 495
    • Sheridan v. Elden (1862), 24 N. Y., 281, 384.